In the summer of 1960, 26-year-old Jane Goodall arrived on the shore of Lake Tanganyika in East Africa to study wild chimpanzees at the request of the famed anthropologist and paleontologist Dr. Louis Leakey. Leakey hoped that Goodall's observations would serve as a window into the evolutionary past of humans. Little did he know that Goodall's scientific discoveries would lay the foundation for future primate studies.Read More
Benjamin Franklin Medal
Stanley Prusiner graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1968 and quickly began a career track in neurology through an internship and residency at the University of California School of Medicine in San Francisco. There he maintained several teaching and research positions in the areas of neurology, biochemistry, biophysics, and virology for more than 20 years.Read More
Barry Marshall has done seminal work in identifying the function of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori in the pathophysiology of human ulcergenesis, revolutionizing clinical understanding of gastrointestinal ulcer disease, and presenting hope for millions of patients around the world.
Information as of 1999Read More
Soon after medical school, Judah Folkman performed an experiment whose intriguing results suggested to him that for a tumor to become a cancerous growth, it must have an unlimited supply of new blood vessels. This was a significant observation; because it was known that new blood vessel growth, or neovascularization or angiogenesis, as doctors call it, rarely occurs in fully formed organs or adult individuals except in the healing of wounds.Read More
Chilton has shown that the crown-gall tumors of plants are caused by the transfer of a small piece of DNA from a plasmid in the pathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, into the host plant, where it becomes part of the plant's genome. The T-DNA can furthermore be used to transfer genes between pro- and eucaryotic organisms. Chilton's work has thus been essential in transforming genetic engineering of plants from science fiction to science.Read More
Professor David Payne earned his Ph.D. at the University of Southampton, where he has worked ever since. He is on the advisory board of the Soviet Journal of Light Wave Communications, is an advisory editor of the Journal of Materials Science, and was program co-chair of the OSA Optical Amplifiers. In 1991, he was awarded the John Tyndall award for "distinguished contributions to fiber optics technology."Read More
Emmanuel Desurvire received his Ph.D. from the University of Nice and subsequently moved to the U.S., where he pursued a post-doctoral fellowship at Stanford University in the area of active fiber devices. He then worked at AT&T Bell Labs and Columbia University before returning to France. In 1994, Desurvire received the prize of the International Commission for Optics, which is awarded to individuals who make noteworthy contributions to the field of optics before reaching 40 years of age.Read More
Ahmed Zewail received his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania in 1974, then went directly to work as an IBM research fellow at the University of California, Berkeley. He was appointed to the faculty at California Institute of Technology in 1976, was tenured within two years and in 1982 became a full professor. In 1990 he was honored by that prestigious institute's first Linus Pauling Chair and, in 1995, he received the Order of Merit, first class.Read More
Robert B. Laughlin did undergraduate and masters-level work at the University of California at Berkeley, and received his Ph.D. from M.I.T. in 1979. Formerly at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, he is currently a professor at Stanford University.
Information as of 1998Read More