## CURRICULUM BRIDGES: VEHICLES

[MATH | LANGUAGE ARTS | SOCIAL STUDIES | VISUAL/PERFORMING ARTS | LITERATURE LINKS]

### MATH:

KITES TODAY: The class will begin the day with a xeroxed drawing of a kite at their desk. Ask the students to color the kite their favorite color and cut it out. After they finish collect the kites and place on a graph. There should be several categories of colors: red, yellow, blue, purple, orange, etc. Glue the kites under the correct category and ask the class to count how many blue kites there are, how many yellow kites there are, etc. You can make up addition and subtraction problems with the graph. Kids love this exercise!

HOW MANY TAILS: Many kites have tails at the end of them. In Great Grandpa's day they used small, cut up pieces of sheet attached to the kite by string to make up the tail. Pretend as a class that you are back in Great Grandpa's day and that you are going to count how many cut up pieces of sheet you will need to make a kite tail. In this exercise actually use small, cut up pieces of sheet and string to count. Vary the length of the string and tell the class that you need one 'hand size' in between each piece of sheet on the tail. Count how many sheet pieces you need on 3 feet of string, 4 feet of string, and 5 feet of string. Afterwards, as an extension exercise you can have the children color pictures with crayons on the small pieces of sheet and take them home. (The pieces of sheet were tied on the string in Grandpa's day).

PARACHUTE JUMP: The children are going to pretend that they are at the county fair. There is a parachute jump demonstration during the day at different times. Let us say, that at 9 o'clock there are 3 people that jump with the parachute, at 12 o'clock there are 4 people that jump, and at 3 o'clock there are 5 people that jump. How many people jump with the parachute in one day? You can vary the numbers in several different ways to create addition and subtraction problems.

GLIDING THROUGH THE AIR: Gliders were invented a long time ago. Today in class we will count gliders that we draw on our paper. Ask each classmate to draw one simple glider on their paper. Then ask for volunteers to come up in groups to do counting exercises. For example, in the first group you could ask for 3 children to stand in one group, each of them holding their own glider picture, and 6 children to stand in another group with their pictures. Then ask the class to count how many gliders are being held by children in front of the room. There are countless variations to this exercise for addition and subtraction.

BLIMP MATH: Hand out xeroxed pictures of one large blimp with squares drawn on the side of the blimp. Ask the children to color the squares different colors. For example, you could ask them to color 3 squares blue, 2 squares purple, 4 squares yellow, etc. In this way, you can determine each child's ability to understand number quantity. Then you could ask the children to pair up with one other classmate and count how many blue squares, purple squares, and yellow squares, etc. that they have together on their two blimps. You could then ask them to take away the number of blue squares from the yellow squares, etc. There are many combinations to this math exercise that you can create.

THE TRAIN TRACKS: A train runs on a track. There are usually 2 tracks. When the train comes to our town it stops at 4 different stations. If there are 3 trains coming on Wednesday and each of them are going to stop at each station, how many stops will each train make?

RIDING ON AN AIR BUBBLE: There are boats that can skim over the water. They were called an 'air cushion vehicle' at one time. Pretend that you are a designer and are making one of these boats. If there are 7 children making their own boat on Monday and 5 children making their own boat on Tuesday, how many boats will be made?

KITE DAY: Pretend that your class is in a kite competition at the local county fair. Each student is entering a kite that can climb high into the sky. You and your students are going to compare the number of feet each of their kites climb in comparison to each of the other kites in the competition. Remember that to round numbers off if there are inches involved. We are going to count according to feet and yards. Let's say that your class is divided into four different group ratings. The first group has kites that are in the frontal position and can climb anywhere from 50 feet to 100 feet. They are competing with kites in this class of equal ability. If there are 5 students in this category and 10 competitors at the county fair competing on this level, how many feet total will there be in this division if each of the kites is able to climb 78 feet? In the second division the kites can climb from 30 feet to 50 feet. There are 3 students and 5 other competitors in this section. How many feet total is there for all these kites if each kite climbs 36 1/2 feet? In the third section there are only 2 students and 3 competitors. The third section kites can climb between 20 feet to 30 feet. How many feet do these kites climb if each one goes 22 feet in the air? In the fourth, and last section there are many kites that can climb between 15-20 feet. There are 12 students and 16 competitors in this fourth section, and each of their kites climb 17 3/4 feet up into the air. What is the total footage for this fourth section? Now have the students compare the footage of each total for the four sections. What is the difference between the distance of the first group and the second group? What is the difference between the second group and the third group? What is the difference between the third group and the fourth group? The students can make up other combinations of problems from the information given.

POSTAGE DELIVERY: In many remote areas of the world mail is delivered via a small airplane. Alaska is a prime example. Ask your students the following math questions. If the pilot makes 5 trips a week to various locations in Alaska and on each of those trips carries about 50 pounds of mail (including packages, magazines, and advertising junk mail), how much mail will the pilot deliver in one year, two years, three years, four years, five years, etc.?

A PRIVATE PILOT'S LICENSE: In various states there are different regulations concerning getting your private pilot's license. In California it takes about 60 hours of logged flight time for students to accomplish all the prerequisites for a flight test. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires only 40 hours of flying time. Let's say that we have 6 individuals in California working on their private pilot's license and 25 people working on their pilot's license in various other states. How much flying time will all of these pilots together log?

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY: In a massive project to map remote regions of Alaska there was launched an aerial photography flight plan over those areas that had never been seen by humans before. The total area mapped through photography from small planes was 23,000 square miles. If on each day, there were four pilots who flew approximately 200 miles, how many days would it take to complete the task of photographing the entire 23,000 square miles?

COMMERCIAL AVIATION: While the carriage of mail was the driving force in early commercial air transport, the area of passenger travel soon supplied most of the progress and development of commercial aviation. By 1945 the Douglas DC-7, the Lockheed Super Constellation and the Boeing 377 Stratocruiser could each carry about 100 passengers nonstop from New York City to Paris at speeds exceeding 300 miles per hour. If on a given month in 1945, each of the above aircraft mentioned flew 7 trips a week. How many passengers would have flown on the three different commercial aircraft in a month, in two months, and in three months?

DENSITY: There is a difference between air and water that has a major effect on travel by ship. This difference is density. Water is 815 times more dense than air. This means that a ship encounters a great deal more resistance than air vehicles. If a ship is going 10 knots per minute and dispersing 100,000,000 gallons of water per minute, how much water would the ship disperse in one hour? (Dispersing means what happens when the ship pushes through the water.)

PERSONAL FLYERS: There are many individuals who love to fly their own small plane for pleasure and sport. One of these personalities is John Travolta, the movie star. He has accumulated 4,500 of pilot-in-command hours in the air and has spent 4,200 hours in jets. He is rated to fly in six different types of aircraft. He owns three aircraft all of which have a top speed of over 500 miles per hour. Mr. Travolta can be quoted: "For as long as I can remember, aviation has given me a heightened sense of adventure and hope...and in fact makes me feel anything is possible". If on a given month, John is enjoying a lot of free time and can fly endlessly for this month. Let us say that on the first week he logs 25 hours of flying time at 500 mph, the second week 19 hours of flying time at 500 mph, the third week 33 hours of flying time at 500 mph, and the fourth week 41 hours of flying time at 500 mph. How many miles does he travel in that one month?

LOCAL FLYING CLUBS: Many local flying clubs offer instructional services and perhaps even scenic flights. Advertised for business or pleasure, scenic flights cost approximately \$105 for a one hour flight for one to three passengers, the flight instruction cost is approximately \$25 per hour for the instructor, and \$49 to \$63 per hour for a Cessna 152 or Cessna 172 respectively. Let us say that three people are going to take a Cessna 172 out with an instructor for 6 hours. How much will it cost totally for each of the three individuals if they split the cost equally between the three of them? If they repeat the same routine for a week, how much will it cost each of them if they split the cost equally?

FLIGHT PERFORMANCE: By the end of World War II substantial progress in many technical areas would alter the future of military aircraft design. Aircraft designers agreed that the piston engine was obsolete and that future fighters would have to be jet propelled. By 1951 the teams that had designed the F-86 and MiG-15 were designing the first fighter able to exceed the speed of sound, Mach 1, in level flight. By 1954 Republic Aviation was well into the design of the monster XF-103 fighter to fly at Mach 3.7 or 2,446 miles per hour. First, have each student figure out what the speed is for Mach 1 from the figures given. Then ask each classmate to approximate how many hours it will take to fly a highly secretive mission of 27,900 miles. Then have the students create their own math problems with the information within the initial problem and challenge each other in a "mathematical quiz".

THE SOUND BARRIER: Research planes have centered around high-speed research airplanes. The "sound barrier", an imaginary wall airplanes were thought to encounter when they flew at the speed of sound (750 mph at sea level and 650 mph at high altitudes) is in fact what forced designers and engineers to build pure research airplanes. On October 14, 1947 army Air Force Captain Charles E. (Chuck) Yeager flew the Bell XS-1 at 700 mph, becoming the first person to fly faster than the speed of sound. Let's imagine that Chuck, during a series of later tests, continued to break the speed of sound consistently. If on 3 weekly tests for 2 years he breaks the speed of sound, how many times does he exceed 700 mph?

MAJOR AIRLINES: There are about 200 major airlines engaged in worldwide intercity and intercontinental passenger and cargo operations throughout the world. These airlines carry more than 800 million passengers every year. One very busy U.S. airport is the Chicago International Airport at O'Hare field. This one airport has over half a million take-offs and landings every year. If over a 15 year period O'Hare averages approximately the same number of take-offs and landings, how many would that be? And if in those take-offs and landings, the Boeing 747 jumbo jet, which carries as many as 610 passengers on a single flight, is used in 50% of the flights. How many passengers will have been carried on the Boeing 747 over a one year period? How many passengers will have been carried on the Boeing 747 over a 15 year period?

DIESEL: The diesel is an internal combustion engine. That is, its power is derived by burning an explosive mixture of gases. The diesel engine is run by the heat produced when air is compressed in a cylinder. When the air is compressed, its temperature rises. The resulting heat ignites fuel that has been injected into the cylinder. The power produced during this process is transmitted to the driving wheels. Today there are about 20,000 diesel locomotives operating in the United States. If each of these trains have about 650 wheels, how many wheels would there be on all of the diesel trains in the U.S.?

### LANGUAGE ARTS:

PRETEND KITES: Have the children pretend that they are a kite and that they are going to fly over the ocean for a day. What will they see and what will they feel on that day? Discuss together as a class what it might be light and create a short story together about the experience. Ask each child to draw a picture to go along with the cooperative short story.

KITE POETRY: Using the word 'kite' take each letter and create several poems together. Tell the students about a 'trilogy of poetry' where a writer will create three short poems about one subject and then write them down together on one paper. Write all of the poems on the board that you wrote together as a class on kites. Ask the children to choose three of them. Then ask the children to copy those three that they like best to create their own 'trilogy of poetry' on kites.

DA VINCI'S WORDS: Da Vinci was a very famous man that wrote a lot of words about flight (35,000 words to be exact). As a class write as many words as possible about flying and how man has used parachutes in their desire to be able to jump off of something, hoping that something would keep them up and let them glide like the birds.

POETRY EXPRESS: Have the children think of a poem together about a train. There should be at least 10 words in the poem. Then ask the children to draw a train with 10 cars so that they can put one of the words about the train on the side of each of the 10 cars. Display them on a bulletin board.

WHERE DID THE WORD 'PARACHUTE' ORIGINATE?: Tell the students about the word parachute and how it originated. The word parachute comes from the French words 'para' and 'chute'. Used together they mean to shield a fall. By using a parachute, the speed of a fall is reduced enough to insure a safe landing. A parachute in use resembles an open umbrella. The open end is directed downward. Strong forces produced by air resistance push upward against the descending parachute. These forces oppose the downward pull of gravity. Although gravity's force is reduced, it is not completely eliminated. The speed of fall, however, is decreased. Ask the students to write a descriptive paragraph about the parachute. After they have completed this exercise have them read their paragraphs to the rest of the class.

FULL-SIZED GLIDER: In 1809 Cayley made a glider that could carry a person. He wrote about the principles of aerodynamics and for the next century everyone interested in flight would read his material. Ask the class to write an article that could be printed in the newspapers of that time about Cayley and his glider.

BLIMPS: The history of blimps dates back to the year 1783. Share pictures with the students of blimps and ask if anyone has ever seen one in the sky. Ask the students to write a descriptive word picture of a blimp, using as many colorful 'adjectives' to describe the blimp.

VOCABULARY DICTIONARY: Ask the students to create a vocabulary dictionary of words that are related to flight, air vehicles, aeronautical technology, and experimental aircraft. Encourage them to check books out of the library for this assignment and challenge them to gather at least 30 words that can be included in their dictionary.

747 DESCRIPTION: Have your students imagine that they have to give a word description of the Boeing 747 jumbo jet to a blind person who wants a complete 'word picture' of the aircraft before they take their flight. Have pictures of a Boeing 747 available to the students so that they can have an accurate picture of what the aircraft looks like before they start their assignment.

MILITARY FLIGHT: Your students are assigned to go on a military flight during World War II. They are the pilot and will be flying over the Pacific Islands in search of U.S. military men who have landed by beachcraft on one of the several Islands. Their mission is to land, pick up the military men, and then fly them safely to the United States. Ask the students to write a short story about this mission and their feelings about the flight and rescue. Find pictures of World War II military men in the Pacific in books at the library and share them with the class, along with any keepsakes that any of the student's families might have at home from this era.

### SOCIAL STUDIES:

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN: Do a short lesson on Benjamin Franklin. Check some books out of the library about how he loved to fly kites, and later how he used a kite to find out if there was an electrical charge in clouds. Write down the basic facts about Mr. Franklin and his kites on the board and have the class copy these facts on paper.

BUFFALO BILL: Buffalo Bill was a showman and inventor. In his later years he moved to England and became famous for his "Wild West Shows". As a class do a short study about how he used kites to tow a boat across the English Channel with what he called "Cody Kites".

JAPANESE TRADITION: Windsocks are a Japanese tradition that has caught on everywhere. In the Japanese culture the windsocks are made in the shape of a fish called a carp. They are the symbol of strength and strong will. Check books out of the library and read to the children about how this tradition began and write a short paper together on your findings as a group.

TRAIN POWER: Read a book to the children on the history of trains in the United States. Ask the children to think of 5 things that were important aspects of the beginnings of trains from the reading. Together write up a one page report on trains including the 5 important things that they gave you.

SCIENTIFIC TREATMENT: Da Vinci gave us one of the first truly scientific treatments about how air can support a man's weight. Have the students do a short study about what Da Vinci learned and shared in his writings on the subject.

SYNONYMOUS WITH BLIMPS: Have the students go to the library and check books out on Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin and do a short study on him. His name became synonymous with blimps. Have the students write up a short paper on what Zeppelin dreamed of and how his design has been fundamental to blimp design up to the present.

THE HINDENBURG: Have the students do a paper on the Hindenburg. It was the biggest blimp ever created and was 804 feet long and 135 feet in its largest diameter. It carried 50 passengers and a crew of 60. What was the interior of the Hindenburg like, where did it fly, and what happened to it? Have the students answer these questions in their paper.

"BARNSTORMERS": Have the students do a study and short paper on the "Barnstormers" of the postwar days of World War I. Much of the American public was introduced to flying first hand by these "flying Gypsies".

UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE: Have the class divide into groups of 2. Go to the library and check out books on airmail service and how the United States Postal Service depends on air flight for their service to America. Have each team write a paper on the history of the Postal Service in relationship to air flight. Encourage the students to include human interest stories in their paper that they find in the books that they check out from the library. Have the teams share their essays in front of class.

PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT: President Roosevelt encouraged the United States to make a firm commitment to the development of American air power. Have the class do a study on President Roosevelt in relationship to the development of this air power and how this affected the United States.

EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT: Have the students do a study on the need, development, and progress of the experimental aircraft that have been developed in the United States. Have them include where these aircraft are tested in the United States and a short paragraph about this flight research facility.

### VISUAL/PERFORMING ARTS:

PAPER KITES: Gather materials to make a windsock kite. You will need tissue paper, 24 inch piece of string, scissors, glue, and a stick or dowel. Hand the children a full sheet of tissue paper and ask them to fold over and make a 2 inch edge. Then have them insert the 24 inch string in the fold. Then fold the sheet of tissue paper lengthwise. Cut a fish shape on the open side, and then glue this edge. When dry tighten the string and tie it, forming the mouth of the fish. Tie the string to a stick. Go outside on a windy day and see the wind fill up the windsock with air!

TELLING A STORY: Read a short, descriptive story to the children about the Wright Brothers and how they built the first airplane that flew in the U.S. Afterwards develop a short skit together about the facts and put it on in front of the parents. Use items from home such as big shirts, coats, umbrellas, hats, scarves, etc. as the costumes.

A SKY SCENE: Give the children small pieces of tissue paper and ask them to cut out shapes that could be used to make a kite. Place these shaped pieces of tissue paper between two 8 1/2 inch by 11 inch waxed paper along with crayon shavings. With a warm iron go over the top surface of the waxed paper 'sandwich' and create a sky scene. (It is important that the teacher oversee the ironing process).

SILHOUETTE PICTURES: Hand out pictures of different train cars and ask the students to cut around the train car and then draw around the picture onto a piece of black paper. Then have the students cut out the outlined car. Display in the classroom on a bulletin board creating a whole train with the various silhouetted cars.

YOU ARE ABOUT TO FLY: Have the students imagine that they are going to fly over the school using a full-size glider that can carry them! Talk together how it will feel, how much fun it will be to be above everybody else in the school, and what it will feel like when they land in the playground area. Then ask the students to draw a picture of their imaginary adventure.

A BOXED TELEVISION: Taking an empty cardboard box from the grocery store have each student make a television box. First the student will cut out a whole in the bottom of the box the shape of the screen of a TV. Then have them either paint, or cover the box with construction paper around the 'screen'. Have the students then make TV knobs out of aluminum foil and attach at the bottom of the 'screen'. Ask each student to then create a funny advertisement about flying in a small airplane at the state fair. Then have each student present their advertisement to the rest of the class holding up the boxed television in front of them. Have the audience rate the advertisement according to originality and humor.

CREATIVE GENIUS: Challenge the students to design a new experimental aircraft that can be used by the United States Intelligence Agency. Encourage the students to utilize their imaginations in this creation. Have them draw their aircraft on large pieces of butcher paper so that they can have enough space to demonstrate their imaginative powers.

MAKING A MAP: Aerial surveying is a valuable tool to map remote regions, such as Alaska. Ask your students to create an aerial map of an imaginary land where there are mountains, lakes, forests, deserts, seas, rivers, cities, towns, highways, and roads. Have the students do this on butcher paper so that they will have enough room to create a large 'aerial picture' of the imaginary land. (Have some pictures of actual aerial surveying to show the students for ideas).

SHORT SKITS: Have students pair up in threes and write short skits about flying in gliders over the Grand Canyon, the Tetons of Wyoming, or over Niagara Falls. Ask the students to create their own costumes from things that they have at home.

PICTURE PERFECT: Show the students a series of pictures of various aircraft that the military has developed in the U.S. Ask the class to re-create any of the aircraft that they see from the pictures you supply. Hand out art paper, pencils, rulers, erasers, and marking pens.

HYDROFOIL PRODUCTIONS: Have the students gather pictures of hydrofoils at the library and study the pictures. Discuss their designs and why there are certain features on these ships. Then ask the class to design their own hydrofoils for the 21st Century. BR>

DRAMA ON THE SHIP: Have the students create and write a play about the experiences on an ocean liner crossing the Atlantic Ocean. Ask them to include details about the ship's size and capabilities within the drama.

WILBUR AND ORVILLE WRIGHT: THE FLIGHT TO ADVENTURE
Author: Louis Sabin
Publisher: New Jersey: Troll Associates, 1983
Synopsis:
This is the true story about Wilbur and Orville Wright and their adventure, in becoming airborne with their airplane the Kitty Hawk. Children will enjoy the portrayal of this book in relationship to flight. There are pictures throughout the text.

HOT-AIR HENRY
Author: Mary Calhoun
Publisher: New York: William Morrow, 1981
Synopsis:
This is the story about Henry, a spunky Siamese cat who stows away on a hot air balloon and accidentally gets a solo flight. He learns there is more to ballooning than just watching as he deals with air currents, power lines, and manipulating the gas burner. The book format is for primary grades, but the information on the concept of hot air becoming less dense is presented clearly for older students as well.

BALLOON RIDE
Author: Evelyn C. Mott
Publisher: New York: Walker & Co., 1991
Synopsis:
This is the story about young Megan and Joy, the pilot of a hot air balloon. It describes the preparations for a trip by the all-women crew. The course of the journey is illustrated with color photographs. Descriptions of shadows, weather, and how a balloon flies are included.

CATCH THE WIND: ALL ABOUT KITES
Author: Gail Gibbons
Publisher: Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1989
Synopsis:
This is the story about two children who visit Ike's Kite Shop. They learn about kites and how to fly them. Instructions for building a kite are included. The book also 'goes further' with activities in which students do a though experiment to determine where the best hang-gliding spot would be.

THE BIG BALLOON RACE
Author: Eleanor Coerr
Publisher: New York: Harper and Row, 1981
Synopsis:
This is a delightful story about Carlotta the Great who discovers that her daughter Ariel is a stowaway in a very important balloon race that she has entered. Despite the problems of extra weight, however, the women win the race - with a little ingenious assistance from Ariel. The children will have to read the book to find out how Ariel helps her Mom win the race! Basic facts about balloon dynamics are described: the use of hydrogen in some balloons, the effect of cold air outside on the temperature of the gas, and the altitude of the balloon.

THE GLORIOUS FLIGHT
Author: Alice Provensen and Martin Provensen
Publisher: New York: Viking Penguin, 1983
Synopsis:
This is the story of Louis Bleriot who had already been a successful inventor in the automobile industry. He then had a desire to fly and this became his driving force in life. He had many setbacks, but eventually became the first man to fly across the English Channel. Children will enjoy this story about determination in the area of air flight and the pictures that are in.

PLANES AND OTHER FLYING THINGS - PAPER MAGIC
Author: Florence Temko
Publisher: Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, 1995
Synopsis:
This is a fun book filled with photographs and simple directions to help youngsters make something special out of paper that flies. Both planes and birds are illustrated.

ANNE MORROW LINDBERGH: PILOT AND POET
Publisher: Lerner, 1987
Synopsis:
This is a biography about how much Anne loved her family, exploration, writing, and conservation. The book is illustrated with pictures.

THE VOYAGER SPACE PROBES
Publisher: Children's Press, 1985
Synopsis:
This is a pictorial essay about the United State's Voyager probes to the outer planets. It includes photographs sent back to earth from the spacecrafts.

THE ABC NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM
Author: Florence Cassen
Publisher: Harry Abrams, 1979
Synopsis:
This is a wonderful book with color aviation photographs from early aviation to space-age technology. The narrations that accompany each photograph are sophisticated.

THE DAY THEY PARACHUTED CATS ON BORNEO: A DRAMA OF ECOLOGY
Author: Charlotte Pomerantz
Publisher: Massachusetts: Young Scott Books/Addison-Wesley, 1971
Synopsis:
This is a book based on a true story and how spraying for mosquitoes in Borneo eventually affected the entire ecological system, from cockroaches, rats, cats, and geckoes to the river and the farmer. This is a humorous text and makes for a great book to read aloud to the class or as a play to be performed. It is illustrated by Jose Aruego.

THE PAPER AIRPLANE BOOK
Author: Seymour Simon
Publisher: New York: Viking Press, 1971
Synopsis:
This book covers experiments in making paper airplanes with explanations of the aerodynamic principles involved. It is illustrated by Byron Barton.

VOYAGERS ONE AND TWO: ROBOTS IN SPACE
Author: Ruth Radlauer and Carolyn Young
Publisher: Children's Press, 1987
Synopsis:
In this book there is a description of the Voyager spacecraft projects, their instruments, and encounters. There are pictures along with the text. This book was written before the project to Neptune.

TO SPACE AND BACK
Author: Sally Ride and Susan Okie
Publisher: William Morrow, 1991
Synopsis:
The descriptions by the author of the space shuttle, the launch, orbit views of space, experiments, and the return to earth are enhanced with color photographs and illustrations. It is a very interesting book.

THE DREAM IS ALIVE: A FLIGHT OF DISCOVERY ABOARD THE SPACE SHUTTLE
Author: Barbara Embury and Tom D. Crouch
Publisher: Harper, 1990
Synopsis:
This text covers three 1984 space shuttle flights. They are documented with color photographs and a text that includes the history of rockets, and biographical sketches of the crew members. Also, the book has diagrams of the launchers and crews' cabins, and the crews' equipment and clothing.

THE YOUNG ASTRONAUTS
Author: Rick North
Publisher: Zebra, 1990
Synopsis:
This is a science fiction tale about a group of children who are considered troublesome. They face their greatest test: those who pass the Survival Trek are going to Mars. Also, see the sequels: The Young Astronauts, numbers 2-6.

THE NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM
Author: C.D. Bryan
Publisher: Harry Abrams, 1988
Synopsis:
This is an in-depth text about flight, how it began. It presents the ongoing process of flight to the current arena of space flight. The pictures and illustrations are exceptional.

THE SMITHSONIAN BOOK OF FLIGHT FOR YOUNG PEOPLE
Author: Walter J. Boyne
Publisher: Macmillan, 1988
Synopsis:
This is a book about the history of American flight which includes the effects of research and wars on the airplane industry. The color photographs in the book are wonderful!

THE WRIGHT BROTHERS: HOW THEY INVENTED THE AIRPLANE
Author: Russell Freedman
Publisher: Holiday House, 1991
Synopsis:
This is an interesting book with original pictures and primary sources which add spice to this biography. The text highlights the research, experiments, and testing necessary for these first powered and controlled airplane flights.

YOUR FUTURE IN SPACE: THE UNITED STATES SPACE CAMP TRAINING PROGRAM
Author: Flip Schulke and others
Publisher: Crown Publishers, 1986
Synopsis:
This is an introduction to the Space Camp program in Huntsville, Alabama. The book covers the living and working in space, gravity, mission training, and future projects. There are pictures throughout the book.

WILBUR AND ORVILLE: A BIOGRAPHY OF THE WRIGHT BROTHERS
Author: Fred Howard
Publisher: Ballantine, 1988
Synopsis:
This is a very detailed biography of the Wright Brothers. There are pictures throughout the text.

AN INTRODUCTION TO POWERBOAT CRUISING
Author: Dag Pike
Publisher: New York: Hearst Marine Books, 1989