## CURRICULUM BRIDGES: TENNIS

[MATH | LANGUAGE ARTS | SOCIAL STUDIES | VISUAL/PERFORMING ARTS | LITERATURE LINKS]

### MATH:

BALL MATH: There are 7 children holding 2 tennis balls each. How many tennis balls are there altogether? If 2 of the children leave the court with their balls, how many balls will be left? (You can create other combinations for the children to solve.)

TENNIS RACKET PLAY: Some children are going to play tennis, but they only have 3 tennis rackets and 5 children. How many children can actually play a tennis game?

HOW MANY COURTS: The children have decided to have a tennis tournament. There are 12 children who want to play, but only 2 tennis courts. How many children can play and how many have to wait?

NEWTON'S LAW: In Newton's 2nd Law states that a force acting on an object starts it moving. Have the children throw a series of tennis balls and count the balls that make it over the net.

THE BOUNCING BALL: When the tennis ball bounces onto the court it may spin when it hits the court. 6 children are able to hit a ball over the net. Each ball takes on a spin when it hits the court. How many balls can be returned back over the net with a spin?

TARGET PRACTICE: There is a target on a backboard with 3 circles. The center circle is worth 10 points, the middle circle is worth 5 points, and the outer circle is worth 1 point. If the student has 6 tennis balls and hits the center circle 2 times, the middle circle 3 times and the outer circle 1 time, how many points total has the student made? (You can made up several different combinations to the problem by increasing the values of the circles, having more tennis balls, as well as doing subtraction, multiplication, and division.)

AROUND THE WORLD: The students are doing a tennis drill with 25 students. In dividing up the students on the two sides there will be 13 students on one side and 12 students on the other. After you hit the ball over the net you run to the other side of the court and get behind the last person. This is repeated for each player. Let's say that each ball that is hit over the net is worth 5 points. If each student hits 12 balls, how many points total will there be at the end of the drill?

PLAYING DOUBLES: There are four players on the court playing doubles. Each player hits a series of a dozen balls over the net in a doubles volley. Then a second set of four players comes onto the court and hits a series of a dozen balls over the net in a second doubles volley. How many balls are hit altogether?

BALL SPIN: When a spinning ball bounces on the opponent's court there will be a set of forces that will be in motion that affects the ball. During a tennis game 2 players hit the ball with topspin. One player hits the ball at 30 revolutions/second and the other at 3600 revolutions/minute. Which player has the faster spin rate?

THE COURT DIMENSIONS: The court dimensions are 36 feet at the baseline, by 78 feet long. What is the total square footage of the tennis court? The service line is 27 feet wide and the feet from the service line to the net is 21 feet. How many square feet are there in the two rectangles on each side of the court from the service line to the net? The alleys on each side of the court are 4 1/2 feet by 78 feet. What is the total square footage of the 2 alleys on the court?

THE TWO HANDED GRIP: There are 1200 students in Pleasant Valley High School and 1/3 of the student body play tennis. Of the 1/3 that play tennis, 1/2 of them use the two handed grip on the tennis racket. How many students use the two handed grip? (You can create various combinations of these percentages.)

THE SKILLS TOURNAMENT: There are 3 playing levels at this Skills Tournament: beginner, intermediate, and advanced. In each category there are 56 students participating. Of the 56 students in the beginner category, 22 students play well enough to be bumped up to the intermediate category. In the intermediate category, 16 of the 56 students play well enough to be moved up to the advanced skill level. In the advanced level 4 of the students cannot do their skills well enough and have to be bumped down to the intermediate level. How many students are in each of the categories at the end of the day?

BALL SPEED: A professional player hits 10 serves. The speed of each serve is as follows: 128 MPH, 89 MPH, 117 MPH, 123 MPH, 123 MPH, 128 MPH, 97 MPH, 108 MPH, 126MPH, 122 MPH. What is the players average serve speed?

THE HORIZONTAL ANGLE OF ATTACK: One's angle of attack is very important to the success of your tennis game. In various situations, the crosscourt shot has a larger vertical acceptance angle than the down-the-line shot and is safer. When you hit a ball crosscourt, the baseline is considerably farther away on the diagonal than it is down the line. This is known as the horizontal angle of attack. Two players on the court are known for their shots horizontally across the court. If in a series each player has an average horizontal angle of 17 degrees, how many shots approximately will each player have to make to add up to 23,000 degrees together?

### LANGUAGE ARTS:

A TENNIS POEM: Using the letters of the word 'tennis' create a poem together as a class. Each line of the poem will begin with a letter of the word 'tennis' in sequence until each of the letters of the word has been used. Take several suggestions from the children as to what to write for each line. Decide together as a class. Write the finished poem on the board and have the children copy it on lined paper and draw a picture of themselves 'playing tennis' to accompany the poem.

THE LONG AND THE SHORT: Ask for ideas from the children on a long story about a dog who 'plays tennis'. Write the ideas on the board and then as a class begin constructing the long story. Encourage the children to use their imaginations. Compile the sentences of the story and read to the children. The following day ask the children for ideas for a short story about a cat who 'plays tennis'. After the children talk about ideas, have them begin giving you some sentences about the cat. Compile the story together. Then read the short story to the class. This can be a fun way of creating stories and some of the children may even suggest that the dog meets the cat on the tennis court which could become a third story (a trilogy!)

TENNIS DICTIONARY: Together as a class make a dictionary about simple tennis terms. Include court, racket, tennis ball, score, rules, net, and drills. Write simple definitions on the board and ask the children to copy them into a small booklet.

THE LARGEST DIAGONAL: When hitting a ball across the net diagonally the player has a greater chance of getting it into the court safely. As a class write a drill together to help a tennis player practice hitting the ball diagonally across the net.

THE BOUNCING BALL: When a ball bounces on the court, the horizontal speed is reduced greatly by its interaction on the court surface. Have each student give you 3 words to describe a bouncing ball and create a short story or poem together from the words that the children give you.

PROFESSIONAL PLAYER: Have the students pretend that they are a world-class tennis player. Have them write a page in their daily diary describing one of their days as this world-class player. Encourage them to be creative and liberal with their descriptions.

A TENNIS BALL: Have the students write a Haiku about a tennis ball. A Haiku poem includes 17 unrhymed syllables organized into 3 lines: Line 1 has 5 syllables, Line 2 has 7 syllables, and Line 3 has 5 syllables.

A NEW SERVE: Have the students write a creative description of how they would teach a new serve technique that they have discovered on their own.

OFFENSIVE AND DEFENSIVE TENNIS: Offense and defense in tennis can be thought of as trying to stay in the center of your opponent's two widest possible shots, while pushing him out of the center of your own. The attacking player moves the opponent so far to one side that he cannot cover both angles. Ask each student to create an article for a tennis magazine describing two players who know how to move their opponent too far to one side of the court so that they cannot cover both angles of the court.

AN ANGLED STORY: Within the tennis world there are varied approaches to the placement of the tennis ball on the court. The angle of attack is a vital part of one's tennis game. Remember, angles are not just for mathematics, but for the game of tennis. Have each student write a short descriptive paragraph of how the "Angle Family" helps the tennis player with his/her game. Ask the students to include as many scientific words in their paragraph.

POETRY AS ART: Ask the students to write a poem about a tennis racket - they can make it silly. Then ask them to write it out in the shape of a tennis racket on a large piece of paper so that the words are large enough to read easily.

TELEVISION ANNOUNCER: Have the students pretend that they are a television announcer and that they have to write up a script to read on the air about the upcoming Tennis Match that will take place in their city. Have the students include the type of match it will be (singles, doubles, men or women), the name of the players, where it will be played, what the prize will be, how many are expected to attend the event, what the weather is projected to be, and who they predict will win the match.

TENNIS DESCRIPTION: Ask the students to write a descriptive essay about the game of tennis. Have them imagine that they are writing this for someone who has never heard of tennis or seen the game played. Encourage the students to use descriptive words and short phrases that emphasize the depth of tennis in relationship to aerodynamics and physics.

THE BALL'S VERTICAL SPEED: There are two things that affect the court's speed: the coefficient of restitution (COR) and the coefficient of friction (COF). The COR characterizes how high the ball will bounce if you drop it from a given height. Ask each student to give a descriptive narrative of the ball bouncing from a given height, including the distance (which can be a made up number) to the time that the ball bounces on the court. (The COR is defined as the ratio of the vertical ball speed after the bounce to the vertical ball speed before the bounce.)

THE COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION: The coefficient of friction (COF) is the measurement of the frictional force of the court surface on the ball. This is in a direction parallel to the surface. The friction slows down the ball. With a high value of COF, the ball receives a high frictional force. Ask the class to write a poem about the COF in relationship to the tennis ball. Encourage the students to apply scientific understanding in writing a creative poem.

### SOCIAL STUDIES:

THE BEGINNINGS OF TENNIS: As a class do a short study together on how the game of tennis got started.

STARTING TENNIS: Do a class study on how old a person needs to be to start playing tennis and what help is available when one begins.

ARTHUR ASHE: Do a short paper together on the life of Arthur Ashe, including highlights from his life and tennis career.

THE DIFFERENT COURTS: As a class do a short study on the various types of courts that are used in playing tennis and how the different types of courts affect the ball when it bounces.

SIR ISAAC NEWTON: Do a short study together on Sir Isaac Newton and how his Laws affect the game of tennis.

TENNIS DRILLS: Do a short study on the variety of tennis drills that are designed to improve the skill of a tennis player.

The U.S. TENNIS ASSOCIATION: Have the students do a short paper on how and when the USTA was organized.

THE RULES OF TENNIS: Have the class look up the rules of tennis at the library and when possible write about how certain rules got started.

CHANGES IN TENNIS: Ask the class to do a study on how the introduction of science to the game of tennis has changed the quality of playing that professional players have been able to rise to.

CHANGES IN TENNIS: Have the students do a study of the changes that have taken place in tennis over the years. Ask them to emphasize how the equipment, court size and net, playing style and strokes, clothing, and rules have changed.

FAMOUS TENNIS PLAYERS: Have the students choose a famous tennis player and do a report on them. Ask the student to share their report orally in front of the class.

WIMBLEDON: Have the students do a report on the Wimbledon Match in England and the traditions that surround that Tournament.

NEWTON'S SECOND LAW AND TENNIS: Have the students do a study on how the trajectory of the tennis ball is affected by Newton's Second Law.

THE SIZE OF THE TENNIS COURT: The size of the tennis court is regulated by consistent dimensions. Ask the students to study the court size and how these dimensions affect the bounce of the ball, its speed and trajectory.

### VISUAL/PERFORMING ARTS:

TENNIS CAMP: Have the students pretend that they are running a tennis camp. Have them set up rules and drills that the campers have to practice. The children can act out the different aspects of the camp and the teacher can help by assigning different 'acting' parts for each child.

BALL CAN ORGANIZERS: Using the plastic tennis ball containers make organizers for your pencils, rulers and scissors. l. Measure the height of the plastic container with a ruler. 2. Cut a piece of contact paper the height of the container. 3. Wrap the container with the contact paper. Have fun filling the organizer with your stuff.

TENNIS BALL MOSAIC: Take a large piece of white paper and brush one side of a tennis ball with paint. Rub the painted side of the ball onto the paper in several places. Repeat with different color paint on 4 other tennis balls so that the paper is covered with the 5 different colors in a mosaic pattern.

NEWTON PLAYING TENNIS: As a class write a humorous play about Newton playing tennis applying his Laws. Perform the play in front of children's parents.

TENNIS SHOE PLANTER: Remember when baby shoes were bronzed! Take and old, clean tennis shoe and make a tennis shoe flower pot. The steps are: 1. Remove the laces from the shoe. 2. Stuff the toes of the shoe with newspapers crumbled up to shape them. 3. Place the shoe on a newspaper and spray the shoe with bronze paint. Repeat 3 times to make sure the shoe is really coated. 4. When the top of the shoe is dry, spray the bottom and both sides of the shoelaces. 5. When the shoe is dry replace the laces. 6. Fill the shoe with dry dirt or sand. Put plastic flowers into the sand and make a pretty arrangement.

PICTURE PERFECT: Have the students draw a picture of a tennis court. Supply the dimensions so that they can make a proportioned picture.

THE TWO COEFFICIENTS: Have the students write a pantomime about the two coefficients: COR and COF. Tell the class that they can make it humorous and/or serious depending upon their ideas.

RACQUET PICTURE FRAME: Take an old tennis racquet and make a picture frame out of it. The following are the steps to make the frame: 1. Remove the strings from the racquet and trace an outline of the inside of the racquet face on a piece of heavy cardboard. 2. Enlarge the tracing by 1/4 inch all around and cut out the enlarged shape. 3. Attach the photo to the board with glue. 4. Place the photo face down on the racquet frame and trim the shape if needed. Tack or staple the cardboard to the racquet. 5. Nail a picture hook to your wall and hang the picture.

TENNIS SCRAPBOOK: Using old tennis magazines, newspaper pictures, and sports magazines make a tennis scrapbook of famous tennis players.

TENNIS PRODUCTION: As a class write a play with characters and situations that revolve around the game of tennis. Have the students act out the play, utilizing props from home and the classroom.

PICTURE SHAPE: Using the shape of the tennis racquet have the students make a picture of an animal. Each part of the animal has to be drawn in the shape of a racquet. The animal can be imaginary.

THE RACKET: Have the students create a 3 Act Play surrounding the various roles of the tennis racket. Have the class make the tennis racket the 'main character' and how it affects the Laws of Newton, the angle of attack on the tennis court, and how the ball bounces. Tell the students to use their imaginations!

TENNIS FOR YOUNG CHAMPIONS
Author: Robert J. Antonacci & Barbara D. Lockhart
Publisher: New York:McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1985
Synopsis:
The book begins with the history of tennis and then moves into step-by-step instructions on the basics of tennis. It covers advanced strokes, the doubles game, and tennis strategy. Equipment, scoring, and recording is also talked about. There are graphic drawings and each chapter has a listing of the information of the particular chapter.

WORLD OF SPORTS TENNIS
Author: Christine Truman
Publisher: New Jersey: Burdett Press, 1987
Synopsis:
This is an upbeat text that takes a lively detailed look at the origins of tennis, its stars, playing fields, and championships. There are colored photographs and illustrations to help the young player in holding the racket, different strokes, serves, etc.

BETTER TENNIS FOR BOYS AND GIRLS
Author: George Sullivan
Publisher: New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1987
Synopsis:
This is a straight forward book about the game of tennis for the beginner to the advanced player. There are black and white photos and an illustration of the court dimensions along with the text. Topics covered are the volley, serve, forehand, backhand, lob, and overhead shots are examined. There is a chapter on court strategies and a glossary of terms at the end of the book.

GETTING STARTED IN TENNIS
Author: Arthur Ashe (with Louie Robinson)
Publisher: New York: Atheneum/SMI, 1977
Synopsis:
Arthur Ashe, Wimbledon Champion introduces young people to tennis. He covers the mechanics of tennis in the framework of individual lessons on forehand, backhand, volley, footwork, auxiliary strokes and strategy. There are topics of etiquette, rules, exercises, diets, practice, equipment, apparel, and court surfaces covered. Included are quizzes at the end of some chapters along with black and white pictures.

PROFESSIONAL TENNIS DRILLS
Author: Lewis Brewer, in cooperation with the United States Tennis Association
Publisher: New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1985 Level: 5 - Adult
Synopsis:
This is a great book about 75 Drills to perfect your strokes, footwork, conditioning court movement, and strategy. Each of the drills is accompanied by an illustrated picture of the maneuvers that are in the drill.

THE TENNIS DRILL BOOK
Author: Sharon Petro
Publisher: Illinois: Leisure Press, 1986
Synopsis:
This is a book that has a series of drills for the player to improve their skills. The book is easy to use and includes fun and challenging drills.

TENNIS SCIENCE FOR TENNIS PLAYERS
Author: Howard Brody
Publisher: Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987
Synopsis:
This book covers the laws of nature in relationship to tennis and how to take advantage of these laws to win more points. Areas that are included are: the strings of the racket, the sweet spots of the the racket, and the weight of the racket, understanding the motion of the ball, getting the ball in the court, and using mathematics to plot game strategies.

TENNIS DRILLS AND SKILLS ILLUSTRATED
Author: Paul Bouchard
Publisher: Minneapolis: Conrad Publishing Co. 1974
Synopsis:
This is a drills and games book with illustrated diagrams of the drills. The drills should allow for strategy as well and the author desires to make stars on the court with this book.

THE TENNIS PLAYER'S HANDBOOK
Author: By the Editors of Tennis Magazine
Publisher: New York: Tennis Magazine, 1980
Synopsis:
This is a handbook to help the tennis player with the practical aspects of buying a racket, knowing the size and types of courts that are available and how to build one, how to pick out shoes, sunglasses, how to take a tennis vacation, etc. It covers a wide spectrum of information.

THE BOOK OF TENNIS
Author: By the Editors of World Tennis Magazine and Cornel Lumiere
Publisher: New York: World Tennis, 1965
Synopsis:
This is a dated book about tennis, but there is some important information that you can gain from this text in the area of the rules of the game, how to serve, and how to hit the forehand. There are illustrations and photographs throughout the book.

LEARN TENNIS IN A WEEKEND
Author: Paul Douglas
Publisher: New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992
Synopsis:
This is a handbook to teach the novice how to play tennis in a weekend. There are colored photographs and diagrams throughout the book to assist the novice.

TENNIS WITHOUT MISTAKES
Author: Vince Eldred
Publisher: New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1975
Synopsis:
This is a great book written by a good teaching professional. He helps the player analyze what is wrong with his game and what to do about it. There are pictures throughout the book.

TENNIS WITHOUT LESSONS
Author: Jim Brown
Publisher: New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977
Synopsis:
This is the book for the student who want to play tennis. This book can help you improve your game "off" the court. There are 3 ways to do this: Read about tennis, observe tennis, and take care of yourself physically. You can recognize your own problems and correct them. There are photographs throughout the book.

PLAYING TENNIS
Author: Sue Barker
Publisher: New York:Taplinger Publishing, Co., 1979
Synopsis:
This book covers what you need to know to play tennis and to do it well. The student will learn common sense things about tennis and a wealth of insights on how world class players approach the game. This book is for both the novice and the experienced player. There are diagrams and photographs in the book.

Author: Jack Barnaby
Publisher: Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1975
Synopsis:
This book covers the areas of racket work, tactics, and the logic of tennis along with etiquette, skills, and the philosophy of the game. There are pictures and diagrams accompanying the text.

MUNCHKIN TENNIS
Author: Jack Hutslan, Ph.D.
Publisher: Chicago: Triumph Books, 1993
Synopsis:
This is a parent's guide to teaching tennis fundamentals by organized fun and challenging games by practicing together. Using a positive approach with your kids they will fall in love with tennis and stick with it for life. This book can be used by the teacher or recreational coach.

TEACHING CHILDREN TENNIS THE VIC BRADEN WAY
Author: Vic Braden and Bill Bruns
Publisher: Boston:Little Brown and Company, 1980
Synopsis:
This book is good for the teacher or recreational coach. You can teach children not only what tennis is, but also how to teach the game to youngsters. The book is geared toward parents, but will be helpful for all who teach. There are photographs throughout the book.