## CURRICULUM BRIDGES: SPORTS

[MATH | LANGUAGE ARTS | SOCIAL STUDIES | VISUAL/PERFORMING ARTS | LITERATURE LINKS]

### MATH:

THE DIMPLES ON A BALL: There are many dimples on a golf ball so that the ball can go farther through the air when it is hit. We are going to pretend that we have 2 golf balls that only have a few dimples. The #1 golf ball has 7 dimples and the #2 golf ball has 3 dimples. How many dimples do both of the balls have together? (The teacher can vary the number of dimples that each golf ball has to do both addition and subtraction problems with the children).

THROWING A CURVE BALL: When a baseball player throws a curve ball the pitcher makes a finger snapping and twist with his wrist. Let's make you a pitcher for a day! You are going to throw different kinds of pitches besides the curve ball. On this day you will throw 5 curve balls in the first inning and 4 curve balls in the sixth inning and 3 curve balls in the ninth inning. How many curve balls do you throw during the game? (The teacher can vary the number of curve balls in the innings, etc. to create different problems. The children will also enjoy creating problems for their classmates. You can play a "Math Bee" similar to a "Spelling Bee" using math problems about curve balls instead of spelling words.)

THE JAVELIN THROW: When a javelin is thrown it spins during flight. The spin can be as high as 25 spins per second. A javelin spins 10 times the first time it is thrown and only 2 times the second time it is thrown. How many times does the javelin spin both times? (Many variations can be made to create a whole series of addition and subtraction problems.)

THE DISCUS: The discus can go really far if it is thrown into the wind. If #1 discus is thrown 3 feet and #2 discus is thrown 8 feet, how many feet are both discus' thrown? (As a class create different problems using the information about discus' given here.)

WHAT MAKES A FRISBEE FLY?: The side view of a frisbee looks like the front part of an airplane wing. Just as the wing of an airplane helps the plane to fly, so does the shape of a frisbee help the frisbee fly. Let's say that on Monday you and a friend go to the park to fly a frisbee. Both of you take turns flying the frisbee. You take 6 turns and your friend takes 7 turns. How many turns do you both take? (Combinations of the number of turns taken and the number of children throwing the frisbee can vary to create other math problems.)

THE BOOMERANG: The boomerang has 2 wings: the leading wing and the trailing wing. If you had 7 boomerangs, how many wings would there be?

THE BICYCLE WHEELS: The type of wheels on the bicycle help the rider go faster. If there are 10 children and each has a 2 wheeler bike, how many wheels are there altogether?

AUTOMOBILE RACING: The need for streamlined shaped cars to help them go faster has been known for a long time. If there are 8 streamlined cars racing on the track and each car has 2 drivers, how many drivers are there altogether? Tell the children that there are two steering wheels in these kind of race cars. (As an extension you can add a drawing assignment to this math question and ask the children to draw a streamlined car with 2 drivers.)

SAILING THE WIND: The wind helps a sailboat to glide through the water. The sail of the boat "catches" the wind and moves the boat. If there are 5 sailboats and each boat has 4 sails, how many sails do all the sailboats have?

SWIMMING ON A HOT DAY: When a person swims through the water they use their arms and legs. This is called "thrust". Let's pretend that as a class you are going swimming at the lake. There are 6 groups of children that can swim that day. Each group swims at a different time. There are 3 children in each group. How many children are there?

TWO TYPES OF DRAG: There are 2 types of drag that a sphere (ball) experiences. The first is the obvious drag due to friction. The second drag and the major one is due to the separation of the flow behind the ball. This is known as the pressure drag. If there are 560 balls, how many drags will all of these balls experience?

NO OPTICAL ILLUSION: It is no illusion that a curve ball curves. When the ball is thrown the air pressure above the ball is greater than the pressure below which causes the ball to curve downward. In the 60 foot 6 inch distance between the major league pitcher and batter, the curving force can move the ball down a foot or more. When the pitcher for the Giants goes to the mound and readies himself to pitch the curve ball he goes through a ritual of tapping his foot 2 times, adjusting his cap once, and licking his fingers 3 times. If during the World Series he pitches 145 curve balls, how many rituals does he do?

THE FLOW ASYMMETRY: There is a flow of air that goes around the baseball as it is thrown which causes it to rotate. Even if the pitcher throws the ball with no rotation there will be a rotation. The stitch pattern on the ball causes the flow asymmetry. If there are 375 stitches on each of the baseballs and there are 65 balls at a particular sporting goods store, how many stitches are on all the baseballs?

THE MODERN JAVELIN: The modern javelin is designed so that the center of pressure is behind the center of gravity. This causes a nose down pitching movement, thereby reducing the flight time of the javelin. The current world record is 313 feet and 10 inches. You are attending a sporting event where the javelin throw is an event. There are 6 competitors throwing the javelin. Each of the competitors has their own personal best throw: The #1 Competitor throws: 215 feet & 6 inches The #2 Competitor throws: 303 feet & 2 inches The #3 Competitor throws: 288 feet & 5 inches The #4 Competitor throws: 237 feet & 3 inches The #5 Competitor throws: 174 feet & 9 inches The #6 Competitor throws: 259 feet & 7 inches What are the combined distances of the 6 competitor's? What is the difference between competitor #2 and #3? What is the difference between #1 and #5? What is the difference between #4 and #6?

THE VELOCITY OF THE WIND: The velocity of the wind increases the speed of the air traveling over a discus. This causes an increase in the lift experienced by the discus and thus a longer flight time. There are two men competing for the prize at a 3 day event and they can choose when they will throw the discus during the three day period. On the first day, the wind is 20 knots an hour, on the second day the wind is 44 knots an hour and on the third day the wind is 61 knots an hour. On which of the days will the competitors want to throw their discus?

THE FRISBEE LIFT: The curved upper surface of the wing of an airplane is what generates lift. The same principle applies to the Frisbee. As air passes over the curved upper surface of the Frisbee it speeds up. This creates a low pressure region on top of the Frisbee. Below the Frisbee air passes more slowly, creating a high pressure region. The difference in pressure gives the Frisbee lift. Let's say that the air pressure above the Frisbee is 10 % and below the Frisbee is 25%. What is the difference in the 2 pressures?

AERODYNAMICS: As a boomerang flies through the air, each wing produces lift. Bernoulli's principle is used to explain how the lift is formed. The air moves faster over the upper surface than the air moving over the lower surface. This means that a pressure differential exists between the lower and upper surface of the boomerang which translates into lift. The air moving over the upper surface of the boomerang the first time it is tossed is 30 mph and the air moving over the lower surface of the boomerang the first time it is tossed is 15 mph. The second time the boomerang is tossed the air movement over the upper surface is 44 mph and the air movement over the lower surface of the boomerang is 22 mph. What are the differences in speed of air movement of the upper and lower surfaces between the first and second throw?

THE RIDER DRAG: A cyclist when riding a bicycle accounts for 65% to 80% of the drag. The rider's position, therefore, is very important to the overall aerodynamics of a bicycle and rider. The crouched racing position and the drop handlebars have been used since the 1890's. In the Grand Tour Race in France the riders are acutely aware of this. During the Race the first group of 25 riders experience 68% drag because of their position and 15 riders experience 77% drag. Which group will go faster?

THE PRODUCTION OF LIFT: Most automobiles produce lift. As the speed increases, the lift force increases and the car becomes unstable. In order to counteract this problem, modern race cars are designed to produce negative lift. There are 10 race cars in the race on Saturday at the local fair grounds. The first, second, and third cars produce a coefficient of about 0.3 and the last seven race cars produce around -1.00 coefficient. What is the total coefficient for all 10 cars?

WINDWARD DIRECTION: A sailboat is moved in a windward direction by using forces that are created on each side of the sail. This total force is a combination of a positive (pushing) force on the windward side and a negative (pulling) force on the leeward side, both acting in the same direction. In the sailing regatta on Sunday there will be a variety of boats competing, but the size of the sails is similar. The boats have 3 sails each and the dimensions of the 3 sails are as follows: #1 Sail is 35 feet 6 inches by 42 feet 2 inches #2 Sail is 60 feet 7 inches by 90 feet 5 inches #3 Sail is 10 feet 3 inches by 14 feet 4 inches What is the total footage of the 3 types of sails?

MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY: The greatest movement in water for a swimmer is achieved by pushing a large amount of water a short distance rather than by pushing a small amount of water a large distance. There are 5 swimmers at the race on Friday night and each has achieved their greatest personal goals in the last 6 months as competitors. The first 3 swimmers push at least 35 gallons of water per stroke when they are competing and the last 2 swimmers push at least 50 gallons of water per stroke. What is the difference in gallons of water that is pushed by the first 3 swimmers versus the last 2 swimmers if each of the 5 swimmers do 20 strokes?

THE HOOK: A hook is when a golf ball is given a spin about its vertical axis. The ball will be deflected to the right for a clockwise rotation and to the left for a counter-clockwise rotation. The generation of an aerodynamic force by a spin about the axis perpendicular to the flight path is known as the Magnus effect. This Magnus effect is important in most ball games. In the game at the local country club the players are known for their hooks. The first player makes 25% hooks on his 18 holes of golf. The first 6 holes are par 4, the middle 6 holes are par 5, and the last 6 holes are par 3. How many hooks does the first player make on the 18 holes of golf? The second player makes 35% hooks on his 18 holes of golf. How many hooks does the second player make on the 18 holes of golf? And the third player makes 44% hooks on her 18 holes of golf? How many hooks does the third player make on the 18 holes of golf?

FALLING OFF A TABLE: Studies show that a curve ball makes a smooth, circular path from pitcher to batter. But because of the increasing gravitational pull on the ball, and the difference in height between release and arrival, the ball appears from a batter's point of view to 'fall off a table'. When the ball is thrown at 90 mph it drops approximately a foot when arriving at the batter's plate, and when a ball is thrown at 80 mph it drops approximately 8 inches. What would be the number of inches that the ball would fall when arriving at the batter's plate if it is thrown at 70 mph? What are the ratios for the three throws between the speed and the number of inches that the ball drops?

THE DANCE OF A BALL: A knuckleball that is thrown without any spin is affected by a passing breeze. It therefore 'dances' through the air in a random fashion. But researchers have found that a slight change (a slow, slow spin) has dramatic changes in the forces that act on the ball. Not only does the magnitude of the force change, but the direction also changes. This is why the ball appears to 'dance'. Pretend that you are the pitcher and one day you are practicing the knuckleball at a game and the breeze turns to a steady wind. If the ball is traveling at 50 mph and the knuckleball starts to dance you can bet that the batter will have a very difficult time hitting the ball. You are able to strike out 15 players during the course of the 9 innings. You are able to throw 7 knuckleballs and with each knuckleball thrown you are able to strike out the player. What is the percentage of outs made by the knuckleballs?

INCREASED FLIGHT TIME: The separation of the flow of the air from the upper surface of the javelin increases the flight time of the javelin. In field events it is important that the javelin not be able to go to far because it is deemed unsafe. On the day of the field events the javelin is thrown a total of 150 times and is in the air a total of 22 minutes. What is the average time that each thrown javelin is in the air?

STANDARDIZED: The event of discus throwing was standardized in 1907. The men's discus weighs 4.4 pounds and the women's discus weighs 2.2 pounds. If there are 189 men's discus and 332 women's discus what would the total weight be for all the discus?

A FRISBEE WITH NO SPIN: If you try and throw a Frisbee without spinning it, it becomes unstable and stalls. Every flying thing must have something that makes them stable during flight. Airplanes and birds have tails. A Frisbee needs to have the spinning motion in order for the Frisbee to be stabilized during flight. You and your friends are going to have a Frisbee throwing contest. There are 650 students in your high school and 30% of the student body want to participate in the contest. Of those 30% who want to join in, 10% are girls. The total distance that The Frisbee is thrown the day of the event is 150,000 yards. What is the average distance that the Frisbee is thrown by the boys and by the girls?

CONTINUOUS TURN: The boomerang experienced a continuous turn as the force is applied for the duration of the flight. The boomerang is thrown with a slight tilt from vertical. This causes the boomerang to also lay down as it turns. Thus the boomerang returns to the thrower in a horizontal hover. The duration of flight is determined by the force with which it was thrown as well as the spin applied at launch. There are a dozen Aborigines who are experts at throwing the boomerang. Each of them flies theirs over 1/4 of a mile. If the proportion of the distance that the boomerang has traveled before turning is 40%, what is the total distance that the boomerangs fly before they turn to come back to the thrower?

CYLINDRICAL SPOKES: A typical bicycle wheel is made of a hub, a rim, and 32 or 36 cylindrical spokes. As the wheel rotates, the flow separates behind the spoke which increases the level of turbulence behind the wheels. This results in a significant amount of drag. Aerodynamic rims help to decrease the drag by reducing the length of the spokes. There are 516 participants in the cross country biking event. Each of the wheels on their bikes have 36 cylindrical spokes. How many spokes are there in total?

THE SOUND BARRIER: The role of aerodynamics in automobile racing is extremely complex. All of the interactions which occur on a given vehicle make the flow field of every car very complex. A new dimension of the aerodynamics with automobiles may soon expand to break the sound barrier. In regulated situations a car can go around 300 mph. With a 30% success rate at this speed how many miles total would 2,000 cars go?

AIR PRESSURE: At sea level air pressure is 2,116 pounds per square foot. There are two sides to the sail: the leeward side and the windward side. Let's say that the air pressure on the leeward side decreases by 12 pounds per square foot and the air pressure on the windward side increases by 8 pounds per square foot. Even though the leeward pressure is negative and the windward is positive, they both work in the same direction. Taking the total of those 2 pressures figure out how many pounds of pressure there will be on a 800 square foot sail?

TREADING WATER: Lift force is generated while treading water. When treading water one does not push down on the water. Instead, one sculls the hands back and forth. This results in the production of lift which in turn keep the swimmers head above water. If 7 swimmers over a 5 day period tread water during their swimming event for 20 minutes, how much time total will be used up in the event treading water? (Each of the day's event is a length of 4.5 hours.)

### LANGUAGE ARTS:

SAILING THE SEVEN SEAS: Have the children write a imaginary journal together about their adventures on the Seven Seas sailing in a Windjammer Sailing Ship. Read a story about adventures on the high seas to the children before you begin the writing section of the assignment.

PRETEND FRISBEE: Have the children pretend that they are a Frisbee. Ask them to imagine how it would be to fly like a Frisbee and be caught in the mouth of a dog.

ILLUSTRATED DICTIONARY: Have the students design and make an illustrated dictionary of words that refer to a boomerang being thrown and returned. Include such words as: leading wing, trailing wing, elbow, Bernoulli's principle, Newton's Laws of motion, lift, and turning force.

UMPIRE RULING: Have the students write an essay about the various types of balls that an umpire would see during his time behind the home plate. Ask the class to include curve balls, knucleballs, and spitballs in their description.

RACE CAR DESCRIPTION: Ask each student to write a description of the race car poster that you display in front of the class. Have them include a written description of the accessories that are on the car to make it aerodynamically proficient.

FOLLOWING THE CYCLIST: Have the class write a two page message that could be aired over the radio describing the bicycle race across America. Make sure that the students include descriptive words that paint a word picture of how the cyclist looks on the bike, what his/her clothing is, how fast the cyclist goes around curves and down mountain highways, etc.

GOLF BALLS: Ask the students to create in their minds a new golf ball that can have a greater lift during its flight. Have the class include details about the material the ball is made out of, what size it is, what the surface texture is like, and how far it is likely to go when hit properly by a golf club.

NEWTON'S SECOND LAW: Have the class create an advertisement about the best discus made that can utilize all the aspects of Newton's Second Law. Make this a class discussion project. Make sure that the students include specifics in their advertisement. Tell them that style along with content is very important.

### SOCIAL STUDIES:

THE HISTORY OF BICYCLES: Do a study together about the beginnings of bicycles. You can check out books from the library and read excerpts about the history of cycles to the class. After a discussion about the information, together as a group you can write a one page story about bicycles.

HOW DID BASEBALL START?: Together write a one page report on how the game of baseball started. Read parts of a book to the class on how baseball started before taking the children's ideas down about the sport. Include "fun" facts about some of the things that happened in the sport when it began.

RACE CAR FACTS: Pass out books about race car facts that are easily read by this age group. Ask the students to write up a one page report about their findings and present them orally before the class.

BOOMERANG STUDY: Do a study together about boomerangs and how they developed. Pass out 3"x 5" note cards and ask the students to place the important information about boomerangs on the note cards. Ask for volunteers to report orally before the class the information about boomerangs.

FAMOUS SWIMMER: Ask the students to choose a famous swimmer to do a report on. Take the class to the library and have them choose books on their personality in swimming. Have them write up a two page essay on their findings about their famous person and read in front of the class.

TRACING THE HISTORY OF GOLF: Ask the students to do a paper on the history of golf. Have the class include little known facts about the sport and its beginnings. Take the students to the library for the research aspect of the assignment before they begin writing.

FAMOUS PERSONALITY IN BASEBALL: Have the students do a study on a famous personality in baseball. Tell the students that they can include players, managers, umpires, owners, and spectators. Example: Babe Ruth

OLYMPIC STARS: Ask the class to pair up into teams and choose an Olympic winner in the area of track field events. After they have found information on the star at the library have the pair of students write up an oral report that they can present to the class. Ask them to include a picture collage of their sport's hero.

### VISUAL/PERFORMING ARTS:

FRISBEE ART: Ask for volunteers from the class of those who have Frisbees at home. Ask them to bring in their Frisbees for one day. Hand out large pieces of art paper along with pencils, erasers, and marking pens. Ask the students to trace around the Frisbee on their art paper and create a picture inside the circle that has been drawn from the Frisbee. Tell the children that the picture inside the circle can be anything they would like.

SAILBOAT FINGER PAINTING: Have the children finger paint an ocean scene on artist's paper. As that dries hand out cut-outs of a sailing ship. Ask the children to color it with crayons and then glue onto the ocean scene.

PICTURE COLLAGE: Hand out magazines with pictures of race cars. Ask the students to cut out the pictures of their choice. Next hand out poster boards and glue and have the students glue on their pictures of the race cars making a collage. Show the class an example of a collage before you begin this project.

BOOMERANG DESIGNS: There are various designs of boomerangs today with some wild shapes. Ask the students to design their own boomerang. (Some have been designed to look like a bird or to form a letter of the alphabet. Because of our understanding of the boomerang, more shapes have been explored.)

HELMET ART: Ask the students to create a new shape for a helmet that is worn when riding a bicycle. Tell the class that their imagination is their only limitation. Encourage the students to use different colors to "paint" their helmets.

REDUCTION LIFT DEVICES: Take the class to the library to check magazines and books on race cars and the devices that are used to reduce lift. Ask the students to draw pictures of these devices and put together a scrapbook.

GOLF BALL CREATION: Discuss together briefly as a class why golf balls have dimples. Then ask the students to create a new type of golf ball that utilizes a different dynamic than dimples to help in the flight of the golf ball.

PICTUREPEDIA SPORT
Author: Special Printing by Dorling Kindersley
Publisher: London: Dorling Kindersley, 1994
Synopsis:
This is a wonderful book for children. It has vivid real life photographs and text on 20 different sports and facts on each of them. It is an encyclopedia on sports!

SPORTS RIDDLES
Author: Joseph Rosenbloom
Publisher: New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, l982
Synopsis:
This is a fun 'riddle' book about the world of sports. Kids will enjoy this book with puns on sports. The text is well illustrated with black and while line drawings to go along with the riddles.

EYEWITNESS BOOKS SPORTS
Author: Tim Hammond
Publisher: New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988
Synopsis:
There are hundreds of stunning, real life photographs of the various aspects of sports. Students will discover the equipment, history and rules of the world's most popular sports in a very exciting presentation.

TOP 10 BASEBALL PITCHERS
Author: Michael J. Sullivan
Publisher: New Jersey: Enslow Publishers, Inc., 1994
Synopsis:
This is a great book for kids who are interested in pitching. They will learn about 10 baseball heroes who learned about the secrets of pitching and left their mark on professional baseball. There are pictures accompanying the text.

WILLIE MAYS
Author: John Grabowski
Publisher: New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1990
Synopsis:
This is a wonderful book about Willie Mays who was a center fielder for the New York Giants. Mays remains one of baseball's immortal legends and children will enjoy reading this book on his life.

MICKEY MANTLE
Author: Mark Gallagher and Neil Gallagher
Publisher: New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1991
Synopsis:
This book gives an accurate and inspiring look at Mickey Mantle who was the greatest switch-hitter who ever lived. Kids will be fascinated by the story of his life and his contribution to baseball. Picture accompany the text.

MORE MODERN BASEBALL SUPERSTARS
Author: Bill Gutman
Publisher: New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1978
Synopsis:
This book tells the story of 6 superstars in the field of baseball. Children will enjoy reading the accounts of these players and their contribution to baseball. There are pictures throughout the book of these players.

BABE RUTH
Author: Norman L. Macht
Publisher: New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1991
Synopsis:
Kids will enjoy the account of the world famous home run batter, and one of its best pitchers too. There are wonderful pictures of Babe Ruth throughout the book that lend to his legend.

MY HERO
Author: Fred McMane and Catherine Wolf
Publisher: New York: Bantam Books, 1994
Synopsis:
This is a paperback book that will have great appeal. Included in the book are 10 stories of some of the most popular sports stars and their profiles of the athletes they looked up to when they were kids.

HOW SPORTS BEGAN
Author: Don Smith with Dr. Anne Marie Mueser
Publisher: New York: Franklin Watts, 1997
Synopsis:
This is a fun book about the beginnings of various sports. It looks at the legends and facts concerning many of the various sports played today. There are interesting black and white pictures throughout the book. Baseball, basketball, golf, and skiing are just a few of the sports covered.

GREG LEMOND - PREMIER CYCLIST
Author: A.P. Porter
Publisher: Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Company, 1990
Synopsis:
This is an inspiring true-life story about Greg Lemond, one of the best bicycle racers in the world. He won the Tour de France two years in a row and overcame a gunshot wound that doctors said would cause him never to ride again. But, he overcame great odds! The text covers the race-by-race outline of how Lemond rode to the top. Students will be inspired by his story!

PEAK PERFORMANCE: SPORTS, SCIENCE, AND THE BODY IN ACTION
Author: Emily Isberg
Publisher: Simon and Schuster, 1989
Synopsis:
Students will enjoy this book and how it has an innovative approach to the challenges of individual athletes. Today athletes combine serious training, state-of-the-art equipment, computers, trainers, and sports medicine to develop 'peak performance' for both competing and extending their athletic careers. Pictures are included to accompany the text.

NEWTON AT THE BAT: THE SCIENCE IN SPORTS
Author: Edited by Eric Schrier and William Allman
Publisher: Macmillan, 1987
Synopsis:
The older science student will find this book fascinating. It is a group of essays in which experts look at the physics, physiology, aerodynamics, and technology involved in a wide range of popular sports.

RIDING AND RACING TECHNIQUES
Author: Fred Matheny
Publisher: Pennsylvania: Rodale Press, Emmaus, 1989
Synopsis:
Students who are interested in cycling will find this book very helpful. It is a thorough book about the sport of bicycle racing techniques. It gives tips on how to pick a bike, including different types of bikes for racing and recreational use. It covers everything on how to ride your bike in traffic, handling turns in the rain - and tips to help you win races, enjoy tours, and deal with mishaps. There are pictures throughout the book to enhance the text.

THE HANDBOOK OF SAILING
Author: Bob Bond
Publisher: Borzoi Book: Alfred Knopf, Inc., 1980
Synopsis:
This is a complete guide to every type of sailing techniques and procedures for the beginner and experienced sailor. There are more than 1250 drawings, photographs, and diagrams. Students who want to learn more about sailing will find this book very interesting and helpful.

A MANUAL OF SINGLEHANDED SAILING
Author: Tony Meisel
Publisher: New York: Arco Publishing, Inc., 1981
Synopsis:
This book is great for the older student to be exposed in detail what sailing entails. The book is for the person who wants to sail on their own. It is meant for the average sailor who wishes to sail safely, swiftly, and comfortably. You'll see the practices, technical refinements and aspects of confidence and safety. There are diagrams throughout the book.

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