## CURRICULUM BRIDGES: MOTION

[MATH | LANGUAGE ARTS | SOCIAL STUDIES | VISUAL/PERFORMING ARTS | LITERATURE LINKS]

### MATH:

Have the students jump (motion) and count to ten as they do so, i.e. jumping 10 times. They can do this as an entire class or in pairs where one partner jumps and the other counts each jump (up to 10 - or whatever number the teacher decides on). Think in terms of Sesame Streets Count keeping track of the number of jumps. (Also use jumping jacks, hopping, jumping rope, etc.)

Using bubbles, have students count the number of bubbles blown in one blow. The teacher can blow the bubbles and have the class count together (or) in pairs, one partner blows while the other counts and then switch roles.

Show the class a clip and a basketball game in which several jump shots are made, or jumps for the ball (like the tip off), and ask students to count every jump (every body in motion, so to speak) that is made. This clip could also be used if you discuss movement that is forward, backward, side-to-side, up or down. Define what movement you want the students to look for and to count each movement that they see (in that category). If you focus on jump shots, discuss movement and leaving the ground (catching air).

OUTDOOR MATH: Have the children line up at the slide. As each student goes down the slide have the class add up the students that go down the slide. Then have 2 students go down at a time and take away the number going down from those who haven't gone down the slide. As more students go down the slide the "remainder" of students will decrease. This is a fun way for the class to get the mathematical concepts of addition and subtraction.

BOUNCING BALL: Have the children count the number of times they can bounce the ball on the floor before they miss the ball. You can line the children up into 2 lines and have a competition between the 2 groups. The team which bounces the ball the most wins.

JELL-O MATH: Have the class make jell-o shapes. After they have set in the refrigerator give each child one jell-o shape on a paper plate. As a math exercise have each child count how many times the shape moves when they shake it softly, and then really fast. Have them count the difference between the number of times the jell-o shape moves with the soft shake and the fast shake.

SPINNING TOP: Bring in a spinning top and have the class try to guess how many times the top goes around when you spin it. As a variation you can have different students spin the top and count the difference in the number of times it spins as each student spins the top.

One Minute Motion: Have each student measure how far they can walk, skip, hop, run, etc., in one minute. Put the findings on a bar graph. Students can work in pairs - while one moves the other student can mark down the distance on the bar graph and then the other student can take their turn at the one minute motion and have their partner mark down the findings.

LEANING: Have the children line up against a wall outside the classroom with feet together and one shoulder and one hip touching the wall. Count together how many can lift their straight outside leg sideways(impossible). Repeat the exercise with these 2 other exercises: standing against the wall with ones feet together and ones back and heels touching the wall. Try to keep ones legs straight and try to touch your toes(count again those who can or can't - it's impossible); and the last exercise is: standing about 30cm from a wall rest your head on the wall, keeping your body perfectly straight and your arms by your side. Now try to stand up straight(count those who can and can't - it's impossible).

CAR POWER: Have each student bring a small plastic car to school. Count the number of inches each car travels on a smooth surface, and a rough surface. Talk about friction in relationship to the distance the car "travels".

BALLOON MOTION: Measure in feet how far a balloon will fly when you blow it up and then let it go.

SKATING POWER: Have the students bring in roller skates and mark the wheels of the skates with a marking pen. Then have the student roll the skate on their desk and count the number of times the wheel on the skate rotates as it moves across their desk. Have students compare their findings and make a chart as a class according to the size of the wheels on the skates and the size of their desk.

Using word problems involving a car's acceleration occurring because of it's state of motion., or scenarios about a car accelerating or slowing down because of the state of the road it is on (flat, uphill, downhill, curvy road, etc.) have students determine whether the car will slow down, speed up, come to a halt, etc. depending on differing variables (out of gas, "pedal to the metal", etc.)

"SPEED LINE": Have the class do a comparison study of the speeds of different animals and forms of transportation. They can make a large display on a bulletin board in the classroom. Use a ball of string which has been knotted every 10 inches. The distance between the two knots represents 10 mph. Here are some distances of animals and forms of transportation to get you started. The spider - 1 mph, the elephant - 25 mph, the squirrel - 12 mph, the grizzly bear - 30 mph, the lion - 50 mph, the chicken - 9 mph. Forms of transportation and their speeds: Amtrak Metroliner Train - 98 mph, France, TGV Passenger Train - 135 mph, Jetplane - 988 mph, Helicopter - 36 mph, Indianapolis Race Car - 170 mph.

PLANETARY PLACEMENT: Have students make a model of the planetary placement in our solar system. Have the students calculate in inches how far each planet should be from the other planets. Their motion is impacted by their placement in the universe.

BODY MOTION: Review the fact that our blood moves around our body by our heart. It beats regularly as it pumps the blood. You can count your heart beat by taking your pulse. Have the students in pairs count their pulse and then compare with the others in the class. You can then either create a graph of comparisons in the class as a whole or ratios of the boys and the girls.

A TRAIN TRIP: Your Aunt Susie wants you to take a train trip to her home back east. Calculate the states you will travel through and if the train can average 60 miles an hour, how many hours will you be traveling? How many days does that equal? To make the trip more fun and to increase your enjoyment make a list of items that you can bring to pass the time.

SODA CAN MOTION: Take empty soda cans and stack them in a variety of ways: 5 on the bottom, then 4 on top of the 5 and 3 on top of the 4 and 2 on top of the 3 and 1 on top of the 2. Do different variations with different number of cans and then take a solitary empty can and crash the stacked creations. Observe the falling cans and how far they roll. Add up the number of inches they roll and graph the findings.

THE ROLLING POTATO: Taking various round or oval natural objects roll them on a table in front of the class. Have the students make a ratio of circumference and distance the objects roll. Ideas of round and oval objects to use would be a potato, apple, pear, plum, orange, cherry, grape, or carrot.

TUG OF WAR: Have a tug-of-war contest using different size groups of people on each side. Count the number of minutes it takes when the group of people on the side are short and then tall. Also, have each group stand on various surfaces(grass vs. pavement, carpet vs. smooth floor) to see if it gives one team an advantage. Graph the results and post in the classroom for future comparison when you repeat the tug-of-war contest.

Have students calculate the motion of the ocean's daily tides and create a tide table for low and high tide times (peaks and lows).

Have students calculate how fast objects of differing weights fall from the same height. Make a chart/graph charting the speed that each object falls with.

Tell students that on the moon an object will weigh one-sixth of what it weighs on Earth. Have the students get into groups and using a scale weigh different objects in the classroom and then calculate what the objects would weigh on the moon.

### LANGUAGE ARTS:

Ask students to tell you all the objects they can name which move, have motion (wheels on the bus, propellers, cars, people walking). Have students draw pictures of things that move. Share drawings.

MOVEMENT SENSATIONS: Have the children do free and funny movements(probably best outside on the playground) without bumping into each other at first. Then ask them their sensations of what happens as they slow down or speed up or bump into each other. Write the classes' perceptions on the board. Then, together you can create a fantasy story of movement sensations.

SEESAW RIDE: Take the children outside and have them ride the seesaw in pairs. They will experience the joy of motion with a playmate and their own legs, arms and feet. Then come inside and write a simple paragraph together explaining the motion they "experienced" and "created".

THE KITTEN NAMED "TIMMY": There was a kitten named Timmy who was walking on a balance beam. At the end of the beam was a ball. What happened to Timmy and the ball? Have the class finish the story of Timmy and his motions.

GRAVITY PULL: Have the students pretend that they are gravity. What would be some of their actions on a particular day?

THE HIDDEN WORLD: Read small sections of the book, "The Hidden World of Forces" by Jack R. White to your class during science. Then as a Language Arts extension discuss the concepts in each section that you read to the class and then have the students write their interpretation of the facts that you discuss together after reading the section.

HAND TOOLS: Have each student bring in two nonelectrical kitchen utensils to see what simple motions they exemplify and how they move. Have the class write descriptions of the hand tools so that fellow classmates can guess what the tool is by the description that is read to them.

"SPEED": In the movie, "Speed" the bus could never go below 55 miles per hour. Because of the perpetual motion the passengers were saved from the bomb. Have the students create a "new" story using their imaginations about motion, friction, gravity, and inertia.

NEVER STOP MOVING: If you could move without ever being stopped (a part of Newton's First Law of Motion) where would you end up? Have students take known facts of science and create their own "Law of Science" with what ifs that are presently debatable in science.

ANIMAL MOVEMENTS: Have students watch an animal's movements and compare those movements with those of a student in the classroom. Make a map and an observation sheet of the movements and share the findings with the rest of the class and how there are similar movements that go on for both an animal and a person.

COMPARING MOVEMENTS: Have students use a sampling system to map movements of a hamster and a cricket. Have the class watch the animals in an empty container first; then add food and shelter to compare the movements of the animals. Write down the findings and share with the rest of the class.

MOVING COMET: Have your students imagine that they are a comet moving through space. Unless they are stopped by a meteor, a planet, or a star they will keep moving forward (Newton's First Law). Then after their imagining have them write their experiences down.

NEWTON'S DISCOVERIES: Have the class write a newspaper article about Newton's discoveries about motion. Have them write it in the "Old English" flavor depicting the times when Newton was alive.

USED CAR SALESMAN: You are a used-car salesman and want to convince a buyer that the particular car they are viewing will not become easily stuck in the mud. What arguments will you use and what tips can you give the new owner on driving in difficult conditions? (You can look at a driver's manual of rules for suggestions.)

ROLLER BLADE LAWS: Have your students bring roller blades from home. Take the class outside and place orange plastic cones in position to create a course for them to skate through. Have them experience the logic of Newton's 3 Laws and how roller blading today has his Laws written all over them. Then return to class and have them write an essay on their experience citing Newton's Laws in relationship to their movement on the roller blades.

Have the students write Newton's 3 laws and then paraphrase them in their own words.

The study of the laws of motion is part of the larger field of study called physics. the word "physics" is derived from the Greek word physika, meaning natural philosophy. As a plural, it means experimental philosophy or the science of forces and forms of energy. Have the students find as many words as they can that have the original Greek root, physik, and explain their meaning. Possible words could include "physical," "physique," "physician," "physiology,".

Have students write a short story about what it might be like if Earth's gravitational force did not exist. Have them include descriptions of everyday activities, such as going to school, playing a game, or sleeping.

After studying Motion and some of the key contributors to this discovery have the students write a research and biography on one of the following contributors of Motion. For example: Sir Isaac Newton, Aristotle, Copernicus ect... Focus being on the research and discovery of motion.

"IMAGINATION GAME": Have the students' imagine that they are Sir Isaac Newton. As Sir Isaac write a letter to a friend explaining what you have just discovered.

Have students research various events in both summer and winter Olympic Games and write short descriptions of the way that force, mass, and acceleration interact in each of the sports events.

"TIME TRAVEL": Have the students imagine that Sir Isaac Newton has just popped in to their school during a school dance. Have the students write a journal describing what Sir Isaac would of viewed. Describe the dress, as well as the auditorium. Most importantly have them describe the reaction that Sir Isaac would have upon viewing many bodies dancing vigorously with lots of movement.

"KITES": After researching the history of kites, and learning about the laws of motion, have the students experiment with kite flying. Have them write a journal about their experience with the kite and what they witnessed in terms of motion and the kite while in the air.

### SOCIAL STUDIES:

BEGINNING MOTION: Have the children share with their classmates when they started to move: roll over, crawl, walk, run, swing, slide, swim, etc. They can bring in pictures from home and share their `picture motion' and then place them in individual scrapbooks.

WORM MOVEMENT: Have the students do a study on worms and how they move through the soil. How do the farmers benefit from the worms in the soil?

CYCLE POWER: Have one student bring their bike into the classroom as an example of the forces of gravity, inertia and friction. Discuss the fact that without gravity there would be no motion, for the wheels would not be held down to the ground. We rely on the friction to push us along and we overcome inertia to start and once moving the inertia gives us a smooth ride. Then have the students draw a picture of the bicycle and label the parts.

THE HOBBY HORSE: Have the students do a research paper on the history and development of the bicycle. In 1817 the German Baron Karl von Drais produced the forerunner of the bicycle called the Hobby Horse. It consisted of a wooden beam set above 2 spoked wooden wheels in line. You sat on the `saddle' pushing the ground with alternate feet.

EINSTEIN: Have the students do a report on Einstein and how he advanced and modified some of Isaac Newton's Laws.

ROLLER COASTERS: Have the students do a study on roller coasters: how they developed and how the Laws of Newton affect ones "ride" at the amusement park.

DISCOVERY: Have the students do a study on friction and how it affects things in motion, both in a positive and negative way. Have them discover who "discovered" the facts of friction.

VIKING COMPASSES: Because motion has to do with direction, the students would value from a study of the Vikings and their use of Lodestone(a type of iron ore that was used in their compasses). After their study of the Vikings have them give oral reports on their findings.

ANTIQUE CARS: Have the class do a study of antique, classic, and modern-day cars. Then have the students make and label a fancy bulletin board showing the chronological history of cars, placing the date and maker of the car underneath each one represented on the bulletin board. Also have the class study the change in fashions that evolved as our automobiles became more streamlined. Have each student write their own report and then read it in front of the class.

MODES OF TRANSPORTATION: In muddy or on unimproved roads, in the snow, or on the desert sands what types of vehicles are most practical? Have the class do a study of the various types of vehicles that are available with their advantages and disadvantages. After the information has been gathered make a class book of your findings, including pictures and drawings.

GEOGRAPHY: Have the students do research about the laws of motion and how force, acceleration, and mass led to the formation of mountains, valleys, continents and other landforms. Assign the students to pick a specific landform and have them report on how it was created.

Have students research how athletes build muscle mass by training more and eating better. Have students discuss the relationship of better training, greater force, and breaking sports records. Asks students if they think there are limits to records or if they think athletes will continue to get better and better.

Ask students to research and create a time line on the various origins and applications of transportation methods through history. Suggestions might include a time line of transportation as it evolved through the history of the United States.

Students could expand their knowledge of the history of physics by learning more about Greek physics and how the Greeks' beliefs were modified by Galileo and Kepler. Students might explore how Greeks and other pre-Newtonian people explained natural phenomena based on their ancient assumptions about physics. Students may present their research as a report or skit.

### VISUAL/PERFORMING ARTS:

Talk to students about motion and movement, what it means to be in motion. Then, play "Bodies in Motion." Explain when you call out "Bodies in Motion" they are to beginning moving about and keep on moving. When you call out "Bodies at Rest" they must freeze. The last one left standing wino!

Have students create "Blow Pictures." (Supplies: Paint, paper, straw, glue) Put droplets of paint on a sheet of paper. Using their straw, students blow the paint into various designs. The "wind" and the motion in which the paint travels creates the picture. You can also have students add any well-travelled (via wind, air) objects to their pictures with glue.

MOVING OBJECTS: Have the class "find" objects in the room that move in a variety of ways. Some on wheels, some with pulleys, some being pushed, or some just falling. Have the children imitate the motions of the objects and share how it feels to move in these ways without walking, crawling, or running like a person does.

MOVING SOUNDS: When a train is in motion there are many sounds that can be heard. Have the class set their chairs in a long line and pretend that they are moving on a train. Have them make up the sounds of the motion of the wheels, the train whistle, the movement from side to side when the train goes around a sharp turn, and the sensation when the train goes through a tunnel.

COMBINING FORCES: Explain to the children that when they walk, skip, and run they use gravity to help provide their forward-going motion(they are combining several motions of force: gravity, inertia, and friction). Give them the definitions of these words in simple terms. Then go outside and have them experience walking, skipping, and running. You can expand this activity and have children play the part of "Mr. Gravity", "Miss Inertia" and "Mrs. Friction".

A BAG OF MARBLES: Have each child bring in a bag of marbles. Move their seats back and sit in a large circle on the floor with their legs touching(so the marbles can't get out of the circle). Have half the class put their marbles on the floor and the other half roll their marbles toward the stationary marbles. Then reverse the order. The children will "see" Newton's First and Second Law of Motion in action. Ask the children questions and then clean up. Then have the children draw pictures of their experiences with the marbles.

PINCH POT: Have the children bring rolling pins from home. The teacher supplies clay. Have each child roll out their clay into a flat pancake. As the children do the rolling explain to them that they are experiencing Newton's Second Law of Motion(which is: The Second Law defines what happens when a force acts on an object - the object accelerates in the direction in which the force is acting). The children can then make a simple `pinch pot' with the flat pancake. 1. The child picks up the clay pancake and cradles it in their left hand. 2. As the child cups the clay pancake with his left hand he uses his right thumb to press against it to create the edges. 3. Let the pinch pot dry and then paint.

YO-YOS: Have the students make yo-yos to see first hand the motion of up and down. You will need 2 identical buttons each, sewing needle and thread, and a reel of cotton thread. 1. Thread the needle and hold the buttons together with their smooth sides together. 2. Sew the buttons together and knot. 3. Wind cotton thread between the connected buttons once or twice and knot. 4. Pull the thread tight and wind all of it around the center. 5. Tie a finger-sized loop in the end of the thread. 6. Place your finger in the loop and flick the yo-yo down and then up.

Cardboard Motion: Take a large piece of cardboard and tie a rope onto it. Then pull it up a grassy or snowy slope. Slide down the hill and then pull it up again with someone sitting on the cardboard. What happens when you slide down together? Make a motion game out of it.

POSTER BOARDS: Have the students draw large posters about Newton's 3 Laws of Motion. Then have them create their own costumes with the "Old English" flavor and have them promenade through the school with the posters held high in proclamation like they did during Newton's time.

Illustrate, have students do this, Galileo's famous demonstration in which he dropped a cannonball and a small stone from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. (Both hit the ground at the same time), after discussing motion and falling objects.

CIRCUS ACTORS: Have the students pair up and become "circus actors" taking turns walking, crawling, and running with books on their heads. Increase the difficulty with round objects on their heads. The class can create circus acts focusing on movement and share with the class next door to theirs at school.

ISAAC NEWTON: Have the students pretend that they are Isaac Newton and have them give a television extra on their discoveries on motion. They can make a T.V. out of a box: l. Cut a picture frame out of a large box bottom. 2. Paint the box black. 3. Glue buttons or knobs on the framed front(actually the cut out bottom of the box). The students then hold the "boxed T.V." in front of their face as they report their discoveries.

A PLAY PRODUCTION: Have the students write a play about Isaac Newton discovering the place of gravity in our world. Have them bring in props from home and create their own costumes to enhance their production. They can do a short study on the types of clothing that were worn during Newton's time before they create their costumes for the play.

HOOK THE HAT: Have the students bring hammers and a 6 inch by 6 inch piece of wood from home. The teacher supplies nails and paint. 1. the students paint their piece of wood and let it dry overnight. 2. Have the students hammer their 2 nails in the wood, one at the 2 inch mark and the other at the 4 inch mark. 3. At home screw into the wall and hook your hats in place. Students will experience the downward motion of gravity increased by the force they supply with their muscles as they hammer in the nails.

SKATEBOARDS:

A CAR OF THE FUTURE: Have the students design a car for the future. Have the class discuss which shape will probably be best. Will the cars of the future have various purposes, fuel sources, capacities, artistic qualities, and comfort features? Display the drawings on completion on a prominent bulletin board in the classroom.

"MOTION/FLIP BOOK": Based on a character, sports hero, famous person, self, ect... Have the student's create a motion flip book. Make sure that each page shows a slightly different movement. When the book is completed put them on display in the classroom for other students to see.

Have the students draw a picture showing what would happen if you kicked an object using the same amount of force on different planets. In the picture have the students draw themselves kicking a ball the ball. Then draw kickballs landing different distances from you depending on the gravitational pull of each planet.

Have the students prepare a skit that pantomimes several motion activities that require quick reaction time (example: starting position in a race). Perform the skit for the class. Have them guess what motion activity is being portrayed and tell them why quick reaction times are important.

Trains
Author: Anne Rockwell
Publisher: Dutton, 1988
Synopsis:
This is a delightful book about all kinds of trains. From model trains to diesel trains are illustrated and described.

Starting and Stopping
Author: Eiji Orii and Masako Orii
Publisher: Milwaukee, Gareth Stevens Children's Books, 1989
Synopsis:
This book shows through various simple activities the dynamic of motion. It is well illustrated and easy to understand. At the end there is a glossary of words that are used in the book. This could be helpful in extended activities for vocabulary.

Gravity Is A Mystery
Author: Franklyn M. Branley
Publisher: New York, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1986
Synopsis:
This is a fun, creatively illustrated book on gravity. Children will delight in the way that gravity is explained and how scientists understand the force of gravity.

What Makes Everything Go?
Author: Michael Elsohn Ross
Publisher: Yosemite, l979
Synopsis:
This delightful book presents the concept of energy in a simple and engaging manner. There are colorful illustrations to compliment the text.

Why Doesn't The Earth Fall Up?
Author: Vicki Cobb
Publisher: New York, Lodestar Books E.P. Dutton, 1988
Synopsis:
This is a delightful book spanning the discoveries of different scientists throughout the centuries. When we question the world around us(these scientists discovered!) is when we see the basic laws of science that govern our universe. A must text for "budding" scientists.

Science Alive: Moving Things
Author: Robin Kerrod
Publisher: Silver Burdett Press, 1987
Synopsis:
A book filled with illustrations and knowledge of the different aspects of motion, friction, and force. Along with these topics there are light, color, and electricity. This is a well orchestrated book for students who want to understand motion. At the end of the book there are activities for students to participate in and learn from.

The Science Book of Energy
Author: Neil Ardley
Publisher: San Diego, Gulliver Books, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, 1992
Synopsis:
This well-illustrated text gives students the opportunity to do hands on activities about motion and energy.

The Science Book of Gravity
Author: Neil Ardley
Publisher: San Diego, Gulliver Books, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, 1992
Synopsis:
A scientist approached book that gives students the opportunity to be the "scientist". The text is well-illustrated with photographs.

Force: The Power Behind Movement
Author: Eric Laithwaite
Publisher: London, Franklin Watts, 1986
Synopsis:
This is a colorful, well written account of force and how it affects our everyday lives. There are both vivid photographs and illustrations to point out in distinct terms the "power behind movement".

Making Things Move
Author: London, Franklin Watts, 1984
Publisher: Neil Ardley
Synopsis:
This well illustrated book gives students hands on experiences with motion, using simple items from home. It is a must for your science lab on movement.

Super Motion
Author: Philip Watson
Publisher: New York, Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, 1982
Synopsis:
An easy formatted book to read and experience. The illustrations are easily interpreted and it is a fun book for hands on activities about motion.

Which Way Is Up
Author: Gail Kay Haines
Publisher: New York, Atheneum, 1987
Synopsis:
Each page of this book discusses a different aspect of motion, gravity, calculus, etc. It's like every page is its own poster with an explanation of how the scientists of the past affects the work of our scientists today.

The Hidden World of Forces
Author: Jack R. White
Publisher: New York, Dodd, Mead & Company, 1987
Synopsis:
An interesting approach to the forces at work in our world. The illustrations, photographs and diagrams help the student interpret our world in a clearer manner.

Force and Motion
Author: Peter Lafferty
Publisher: New York, Darling Kindersley, Inc., 1992
Synopsis:
A beautiful book on motion and force, well written with fabulous photographs and illustrations. Its format is so well done that you want to turn the page to see what is next.

Moving Heavy Things
Publisher: Not listed, except for a copyright, 1980 by Jan Adkins, Printed in the United States of America
Synopsis:
Moving Heavy Things is an interesting, well illustrated text about moving weighty and massive items. It shows the history of moving things and gives 15 Precepts of Moving.

Isaac Newton, Reluctant Genius
Author: D.C. Ipsen
Publisher: Hillside, N.J., Enslow Publishers, Inc., 1985
Synopsis:
A great book that encompasses the life of Isaac Newton and his pursuits in science. His accomplishments were phenomenal, but he was reluctant to expose many of his ideas due to criticism of the science community of the time.

An Old Man's Toy
Author: A. Zee
Publisher: New York, MacMillan Publishing Company, 1989
Synopsis:
This is an excellent book for "science students" who want to understand the workings of science and the major mysteries of the universe. Fascinating!

Seven Ideas That Shook the Universe
Author: Nathan Spielberg and Byron D. Anderson
Publisher: John Wiley, 1985