Note: In December, 1996, Amy outlined her experiment.
Amy Begins Her Investigation
Introduces Her Investigation
lichens: any of various complex lower plants
made up of an alga and a fungus growing together as a new organism
I am investigating the effect of acid rain
pollution on different samples of lichens, and as a result,
seeing if these lichens can be used as bioindicators. I
will do this using samples of crustose, foliose, and
crustose - crustlike, flaky
foliose - leaflike, papery thin
fruticose-pendant - a variety of fruticose
fruticose - stalked, branchlike
I feel that out of the three types of lichens,
the fruticose sample will be most susceptible to the acidic
solution. This "beard lichen" is described as bushy and
shrubby. Most commonly grown from trees, these lichens are
known to grow where the air is clean and less polluted. I
feel the foliose lichen sample will be the next most
susceptible to the acidic solution. These lichens can be
green, yellow, black, or orange and cling to rocks and
trees. Foliose lichens are known to be able to survive in
slightly polluted areas. The crustose lichen sample will be
the least susceptible to the acidic solution. This type of
lichen forms hard crusts on barks and rocks. They can
survive in polluted areas and are the least developed lichen form.
- I will order two samples of lichen sets that include
portions of crustose, foliose, and fruticose lichens priced
at $10.25 per set.
- I will take both of the sets and place each type of
lichen into a different glass bowl with a lid.
- I will use a sample of crustose, foliose, and fruticose
as a control, watering it daily with ten sprays of normal
- I will take the remaining sample of crustose, foliose,
and fruticose lichens and mist them daily with ten sprays of
- I will keep a daily chart of the progress of both the
control and the manipulated lichen samples.
- I will take photographs for visual purposes to further
record the progress of the samples.
- I will record all observations in my science fair
Note: In March, 1997, Amy published her results.
- Bland, John. Forests of Lilliput: the Realm of Mosses
and Lichens. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1971.
- Hutchins, Ross E. Plants Without Leaves. New York:
Dodd, Mead & Company, 1966.
- Hawksworth, D.L., ed. Frontiers In Mycology: Honorary
and General Lectures from the Forth International
Mycological Congress. Germany: C.A.B. International, 1991.
- Wilkes, Angela. My First Green Book. New York: Alfred
A. Knopf, Inc., 1991.
Hotlist of Online Resources
- General Lichen Resources
Perspective - Lichens
- Lichens as Bio-Indicators
Pollution, Lichens, and Mosses
- Lichen Case Studies
- Norwegian Study on Lichens and Pollution
of Barton Creek
and Air Quality in the Lye Brook Wilderness Area
- Academic/Reference Resources
to the World of Lichenology
to Lichens and Lichenologists
- Lists of
"Quite Amazing" Archives