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Combination:Calculating Machine and Printer, 1897

For K-12 Teachers

William S. Burroughs and the National Science Education Standards

At all grade levels, the National Science Education Standards call for students to develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry and their understandings about scientific inquiry. Likewise, students at all grade levels should develop their understanding of science as a human endeavor.

The Burroughs project captures one person's process of inquiry as a case study for student reflection. Student exploration of the resources presented here, particularly at the high school level, can support standards-based learning. The project also offers a useful historical perspective on the scientific process.

The content of the Burroughs project is advanced for younger grade levels, but teachers of all grades may find the material useful for their own science content background.

William S. Burroughs and the Principles & Standards for School Mathematics

At all grade levels, the Standards for School Mathematics call for students to understand, visualize, and analyze mathematical relationships. The Arithmometer is an ideal case study for this standard, particularly at the middle and high school grade bands. In particular, the How it Works illustration and animation provides students with a model for visualizing a mathematical calculation.

The standards also call for students to experience a broad spectrum of careers and/or circumstances in which people use mathematics. The story of William S. Burroughs offers one vivid portrait.