Introduction:
Designed as a standardsbased
collaborative activity for middle and
high school feeder schools, this action
plan spans grades six through twelve.
Supporting the National Science
Education Standards' premise that
"Science As Inquiry" works best
using real world problems, all
students should develop an understanding
of:
 Populations,
resources, and environments:
 When
an area becomes
overpopulated, the
environment will become
degraded due to the
increased use of
resources.
 Causes
of environmental
degradation and resource
depletion vary from
region to region and from
country to country.
Objectives:
Middle School students will:
 Design and conduct
a scientific investigation for
water usage during toilet
flushes.
 Use appropriate
tools and techniques to gather,
analyze, and interpret data for
water usage.
 Develop
descriptions, explanations,
predictions, and models using the
data analysis and
interpretations.
 Think critically
and logically to make the
relationships between evidence
and explanations.
 Recognize and
analyze alternative explanations
and predictions.
High School students will:
 Think critically
and logically to make the
relationships between evidence
and explanations, i. e.
investigate how much water is
used by visitors staying in large
hotels at Jacksonville beaches,
and compare water consumption
with the revenue the targeted
hotels produce for Jacksonville's
economy.
 Recognize and
analyze alternative explanations
and predictions.
 Communicate
scientific procedures and
explanations by developing and
distributing a brochure.
 Use mathematics in
all aspects of scientific inquiry
Activities
/ Procedures:
Middle
School Students
The
Question: Exactly how much
water do we use when flushing the toilet?
WarmUp
: Communicating: Use the KWL method.
 Use
the question to brainstorm what
students know about water
conservation and toilet flushing.
Write student thoughts on the
board or a chart tablet.
 Organize
the knowledge into primary and
secondary.
 Next,
find out what students want to
know about water conservation and
toilet flushing.
Experiencing,
Measuring, Observing, and Verifying
 Use
the Toilet Talk as an
introduction for concrete
activities for water use.
 Review
quarts and gallons. Use gallon
milk jugs to fill containers that
hold 5 gallon, 3.5 gallon, and 1.6
gallon containers.
 Use
the chart for
students to gather data at home.
Charting
and Graphing
 Create
a graph of tank sizes and water
use when flushing for your
classroom.
 Classifying
and Comparing
 What
if everyone in your class had a
1.6 gallon tank? Add together the
total number of flushes for your
class then multiply the total
flushes by 1.6 gallons.
 Now
subtract that number from the
number of total gallons your
class really uses each day.
 How
much water would be saved if each
family had a 1.6 gallon tank?
Inferring
and Interpreting Data
 Infer
how much water is used by all of
the families of students in your
school.
 How
will you interpret this data in
answering this question? How can
you save water by just focusing
on toilet use?
Explaining,
Generalizing, Applying, and Hypothesizing
 Explain
how much water you could save if
you had a smaller tank at your
home.
 Think
about how much water is used at
the local beach hotels? What
would you need to know to find
out how many gallons of water an
average hotel uses just by
flushing toilets each day?
High School
Students
The
Questions: Based on the data
collected at the middle school, how much
water do you think is used in the beach
hotels daily? How can we effectively
communicate the need for water
conservation to people staying in the
beach hotels?
WarmUp
: Communicating: Use the KWL method:
 Find
out what we know about water use
at the beach hotels. Write student
thoughts on the board or a chart
tablet.
 Organize
the knowledge into primary and
secondary.
 Next,
find out what students want to
know to communicate what they
have learned from the middle
school students' data to the
their own lives.
Inferring
and Interpreting Data
 Look at the data
generated by the middle school
students. Think critically and
logically to make the
relationships between middle
school data and their personal
water use at home.
 Use
the chart to
gather your own data to compare
with the middle school data.
 Graph
your data and compare use with
middle school data.
Explaining,
Generalizing, Applying and Hypothesizing
 If there are
differences, what do you
attribute them to?
 How can you
generalize the combined results
to water use by toilet flushing
at the beach?
 How can you apply
what you think to estimate and
hypothesize water use at the
beach?
Model
Building and Predicting: Expanding the
Experiment to Beach Visitors
Developing
A Survey: Develop a survey for water
use at beach hotels.
In
developing the survey, students must
consider the following guidelines:
2.
Determine the survey participants. Then,
develop survey questions that will allow
the class to keep track of survey
participants' responses in terms of any
information that may be relevant. Discuss
why these items are important for
gathering data and how they may vary
depending on the participants.
3.
Develop the survey questions. For data
collection purposes, it is best for
students to not ask "yes/no" or
openended questions. Better types of
survey questions, from a statistical
accuracy standpoint, are those to which
participants respond "always,
sometimes, never," rank comments in
the order of importance, or answer
closeended questions by circling
responses.
4.
Determine how the survey will be
analyzed. What mathematics will be
necessary? (mean, mode, and standard
deviation, as well as determine validity
and reliability of individual questions.)
5. After
designing the survey, students should
share their predictions of
what the study will show about water
usage of flushes at the
beaches. The teacher or a student should
type out the survey neatly
and photocopy it to distribute to
students.
6.
Students conduct the survey developed in
class with a select beach
hotel (a sample). Each student should be
responsible for the same
minimum number of survey participants.
7. Once
the data is collected, students should
work in pairs or small
groups to analyze and interpret the
findings from the hotels.
8.
Models of their findings will be
developed for students to compare the
findings with their initial predictions.
9.
Students will find out what the revenue
is from these hotels then compare it to
the water use to disern the tradeoff of
income versus water usage.
10.
Students will develop brochures of the
findings to be distributed to beach
hotels and the public to raise community
water conservation awareness.
Further Questions
for Discussion:
These
are questions that come up as a result of
this project. Examples might be questions
of other kinds of water conservation.
Evaluation /
Assessment:
Students will be evaluated on
initial written activity, participation
in class discussions, thoughtful
participation in designing a research
study, and participation in survey
distribution and analysis.
