Petroleum Institute - oil trade
organization founded in 1920 that is the leading standard setting
organization for all types of oil field equipment. It is concerned
with exploration, production, transportation, refining, and marketing.
a flat decked, shallow draft vessel, usually towed by a boat.
A complete drilling rig may be assembled on a barge and the vessel
used for drilling wells in lake sand in inland waters and marshes.
a measure of volume for petroleum products in the United States,
One barrel is the equivalent of 42 US gallons.
a specific layer of earth or rock that presents a contrast to
other layers of different material lying above, below, or adjacent
solid rock just beneath the soil.
the cutting or boring element used in drilling oil and gas wells.
The bit consists of a cutting element and a circulating element.
The cutting element is steel teeth, tungsten carbide buttons,
industrial diamonds, or polycrystalline diamond compacts.
- block- any assembly of pulleys on a common
- blowout- an uncontrolled low of gas, oil, or
other well fluids into the atmosphere or into an underground
- bore- the inside diameter of a pipe or a drilled
- bore hole- a hole made by drilling or boring.
- clay- a term used for particles smaller than
1/256 millimeter, regardless of mineral composition.
- contract - a written agreement that can be
enforced by law and that lists the terms under which the acts
required are to be performed. A drilling contract covers such
factors as the cost of drilling the well, the distribution of
expenses between operator and contractor, and the type of equipment
to be used.
- crown - the crown block or top of a derrick.
- crown block - an assembly mounted on beams
at the top of the derrick and over which the drilling line is
- crude oil - unrefined liquid petroleum. It
ranges in density from very light to very heavy and in color
from yellow to black, and it may have a paraffin, asphalt, or
- derrick - a large load bearing structure, usually
of bolted construction. In drilling, the standard derrick has
four legs standing at the corners of the substructure and reaching
to the crown block.
- diamond bit - a drill bit that has small industrial
diamonds embedded in its cutting surface. Cutting is performed
by the rotation of the very hard diamonds over the rock surface.
- Drake well - the first well drilled in the
United States in search of oil. It was linear Titusville, Pennsylvania.
- drill - to bore a hole in the earth, usually
to find ad remove subsurface formation fluids such as oil and
- drill bit - the cutting or boring element used
- drill pipe - seamless steel or aluminum pipe.
- drill site - the location of a drilling rig.
- dry hole - any well that does not produce oil
or gas in commercial quantities.
- exploration - the search for reservoirs of
oil and gas, including aerial and geophysical surveys, geological
studies, core testing, and drilling of wildcats.
- fault - a break in the earth's crust along
which rocks on one side have been displaced relative to those
on the other side.
- fault trap - a subsurface hydrocarbon trap
created by faulting, in which an impermeable rock layer has moved
opposite the reservoir bed or where impermeable gouge has sealed
the fault and stopped fluid migration.
- field - a geographical area in which a number
of oil or gas wells produce from a continuous reservoir. A field
may refer to surface area only or to underground productive formations
- fluid - a substance that flows and yields to
any force tending to change its shape. Liquids and gases are
- formation - a bed or deposit composed throughout
of substantially the same kind of rock. Each formation is given
a name, frequently as a result of the study of the formation
outcrop at the surface and sometimes based on fossils found in
- formation fluid - fluid (such as gas, oil,
or water) that exists in a subsurface rock formation.
- formation fracturing - a method of stimulating
production by opening new flow channels in the rock surrounding
a production well. Often called a frac job.
- formation pressure - the force exerted by fluids
in a formation, recorded in the hole at the level of the formation
with the well shut in. Also called reservoir pressure or shut-in
bottom hole pressure.
- geologist - scientist who gathers and interprets
data pertaining to the rocks of the earth's crust.
- geology - the science of the physical history
of the earth and its life, especially as recorded in the rocks
of the crust.
- geophone - an instrument placed on the surface
that detects vibrations passing through the earth's crust. It
is used in conjunction with seismography.
- gusher - an oil well that has come in with
such great pressure that the oil jets out of the well like a
geyser. In reality, a gusher is a blowout and is extremely wasteful
of reservoir fluids and drive energy.
- hoist - an arrangement of pulleys and wire
rope or chain used for lifting heavy objects.
- hydraulic - of r relating to water or other
liquid in motion.
- hydraulic fracturing - an operation in which
a specially blended liquid is pumped down a well and into a formation
under pressure high enough to cause the formation to crack open,
forming passages through which oil can flow into the well bore.
- hydrocarbons - organic compounds of hydrogen
and carbon whose densities, boiling points, and freezing points
increase as their molecular weights increase. Although composed
of only two elements, hydrocarbons exist in a variety of compounds,
because of the strong affinity of the carbon atom for other atoms
and for itself. Petroleum is a mixture of many different hydrocarbons.
- hydrophore - a device trailed in an array behind
a boat in offshore seismic exploration that is used to detect
sound reflections, convert them to electric current, and send
them through a cable to recording equipment on the boat.
- joule - the unit of energy or work. It is equal
to 1 newton - meter, which is 1 newton of force acting through
a distance of 1 meter in the direction of the force.
- kelly - the heavy steel tubular device, suspended
from the swivel through the rotary table and connected to the
top joint of drill pipe to turn the drill stem as the rotary
table turns. It has a bored passageway that permits fluid to
be circulated into the drill stem and up the annulus, or vice
- kick fluids - oil, gas, water, or any combination
that enters the bore hole from a permeable formation.
- land rig - any drilling rig that is located
on dry and.
- lens - a porous, permeable, irregularly shaped
sedimentary deposit surrounded by impervious rock.
- liner - a string of pipe used to case open
hole below existing casing.
- liquid - a state of matter in which the shape
of the given mass depends on the containing vessel, but the volume
of the mass is independent of the vessel. A liquid is a fluid
that is almost incompressible.
- location - the place where a well is drilled,
Also called well site.
- log - a systematic recording of data, such
as a driller's log, a mud log, an electrical well log, or a nuclear
- logging devices - any of several electrical,
acoustical, mechanical, or nuclear devices that are used to measure
and record certain characteristics or events that occur in a
well that has been o is being drilled.
- manifold - an accessory system of piping to
a main piping system that serves to divide a flow into several
parts, to combine several flows into one, or to reroute a flow
to any one of several possible destinations.
- mast - a portable derrick that is capable of
being raised as a unit.
- mineral rights - the rights of ownership, conveyed
by deed, of gas, oil, and other minerals beneath the surface
of the earth. In the United States, mineral rights are the property
of the surface owner unless disposed of separately.
- mud - the liquid circulated through the well
bore during rotary drilling operations. In addition to its function
of bringing cuttings to the surface, drilling mud cools and lubricates
the bit and the drill stem, protects against blowouts by holding
back subsurface pressures, and deposits a mud cake o the wall
of the brehole to prevent loss of fluids to the formation.
- mud pit - originally, an open pi dug in the
ground to hold drilling fluid or waste materials discarded after
the treatment of drilling mud. For some drilling operations,
mud pits are used for suction to the mud pumps, settling of mud
sediments, and storage of reserve mud. Steel tanks are much more
commonly used for these purposes now, but they are still referred
to as pits, except offshore, where "mud tanks" is preferred.
- mud tank - one of a series of open tanks, usually
made of steel plate, through which the drilling mud is cycled
to remove sand and fine sediments. Also called mud pits.
- natural gas - highly compressible, highly expandable
mixture of hydrocarbons with a low specific gravity and occurring
naturally in a gaseous form. Besides hydrocarbon gases, natural
gas may contain appreciable quantities of nitrogen, helium, carbon
dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and water vapor.
- newton - a unit that expresses force.
- nonporous - containing no interstices; having
- nozzle - a passageway through jet bits that
causes the drilling fluid to be ejected from the bit at high
velocity. The jets of mud clear the bottom of the hole.
- offshore - that geographic area that lies seaward
of the coastline. In general, the term "coastline"
means the line of ordinary low water along that portion of the
coast that is in direct contact with the open sea or the line
marking the seaward limit of inland water.
- offshore drilling - drilling for oil or gas
in an ocean, gulf, or sea, usually on the Outer Continental Shelf.
- offshore production platform - an immobile
offshore structure from which wells are produced.
- oil - a simple or complex liquid mixture of
hydrocarbons that can be refined to yield gasoline, kerosene,
diesel fuel, and various other products.
- oil field - the surface area overlying an oil
reservoir or reservoirs. The term usually includes not only the
surface area, but also the reservoir, the wells, and the production
- oil patch - the oil field.
- oil sand - a sandstone that yields oil.
- oil seep - a surface location where oil appears,
the oil having permeated its subsurface boundaries and accumulated
in small pools or rivulets. Also called oil spring.
- oil well - a well from which oil is obtained.
- Outer Continental Shelf - the land seaward
from areas subject to state mineral ownership to a depth of roughly
8,000 feet, beyond which mineral exploration ad development are
not, at present, feasible. Boundaries of this self are set by
law. In general, the term is used to describe federally controlled
- perforate - to pierce the casing wall and cement
of a well bore to provide holes through which formation of fluids
may enter or to provide holes in the casing so that materials
may be introduced into the annulus between the casing and the
wall of the bore hole.
- permeability - a measure of the ease with which
a fluid flows through the connecting pore spaces of a rock.
- permeable - allowing the passage of fluid.
- petroleum - a substance occurring naturally
in the earth in sold, liquid, or gaseous state and composed mainly
of mixtures of chemical compounds of carbon and hydrogen, with
or without other nonmetallic elements such as sulfur, oxygen,
- petroleum geology - the study of oil and gas
bearing rock formations.
- pipe - a long, hollow cylinder, usually steel,
through which fluids are conducted.
- pneumatic - operated by air pressure.
- porosity - the condition of being porous. The
ratio of the volume of empty space to the volume of solid rock
in a formation, indicating how much fluid a rock can hold.
- porous - having pores, or tiny openings, as
- pressure - the force that a fluid exerts uniformly
in all directions within a vessel, a pipe, a hole in the ground,and
- producer - a well that produces oil or gas
in commercial quantities.
- production - the phase of the petroleum industry
that deals with bring the well fluids to the surface and separating
them and with storing, gauging, and otherwise preparing the product
for the pipeline. the amount of oil or gas produced in a given
(Not Finished. Still under construction)